Relief: the relief of the mapped area (KASHIMBILA N.W.) can be described as follows
(i)A dissected plateau is found in the north-central area of the map which extended to the Central area.
(ii)The eastern, western, and southern areas of the mapped area are mainly lowlands with the lowest height of 500m above sea level

Drainage pattern: this can be described in the following ways:
(i)The main river is the Katsina-Ala and other minor ones that empty their water into it e.g mku, agbadi, apipo, abagu, kangi, etc . The direction of the flow of river Katsina-Ala is from north-west to south-east on the map.
(ii)The drainage pattern of the mapped area is dendritic.

Settlement: the settlement pattern of the mapped area is displeased on scalloped settlement. That is the building is far from each other with few social amenities.

The development of given Katsina-Ala in these stages, there are youthful, matured, and old age stages.
The youthful stage marks the source of river katsina – ala at Bamenda highlands with a V-shape valley. The matured stage of the rivers is characterized by meanders and U-shape valley. The old stage leads to the mouth of given katsina – ala (I;e when it empties its water to river Benue)

The reasons for the above cycles of development of given katsina – ala are;

(i)Vertical erosion at the youthful stage
(ii)Lateral erosion and transportation at the matured stage
(iii)Deposition of materials at the old age stage.

(i)changing of the seasons not the same temperature in different parts of the Earth
(ii)change of the length of the Day and Night during the year
(iii)change of the position of the midday sun and night during the year and in the different parts of the Earth
(iv)Change of the lunar eclipse and marking of the year.

(i)Equinox refers to a day with an equal duration of day and night. We have two equinoxes in a year which are:
-Spring equinox on March 20
-Autumnal equinox on September 22

(i)It could be spring or autumnal.
(ii)It is equal lengths of day and night
(iii)the days and nights are equal

Solstice refers to a day with either the longest day or the shortest. The two solstices in a year are:
-Winter solstice on December 22
-Summer solstice on June 21

(i)It could be summer or winter
(ii)It is the unequal length of day and night
(iii)The days are longer in summer and shorter in winter.

(i)Because the changes in hours of daylight and in temperature caused by revolution and tilt lead to the yearly change of seasons at middle latitudes. If Earth’s axis were perpendicular to its plane of orbit, seasons would not occur. In addition, every place on the Earth’s surface would experience 12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of darkness every day. On the other hand, if Earth’s axis were tilted more than 23.5°, each hemisphere would experience hotter summers and colder winters.

(ii)Because On the first day of summer, every point on Earth within 23.5° of the North Pole experiences 24 hours of daylight. The boundary of this region, at latitude 66.5° N, is the Arctic Circle. On June 21 in the Southern Hemisphere, every point south of the Antarctic Circle (latitude 66.5° S ) experiences 24 hours of darkness.

(iii)Because The hemisphere tilted toward the sun receives more direct sunlight and thus has warmer temperatures and longer days. The hemisphere tilted away from the sun receives indirect sunlight. That hemisphere has cooler temperatures and shorter days. In other words, it changes the summer to be warm and bright and also changes it to be Winter.

Environmental conservation is basically the practice of us humans to save the environment from collapsing, such as loss of species, ecosystems due to pollution and human activities.


(i)Recycling: This is a process by which the life of a resource is extended by means of recycling it or reusing it as an input or output. This is applicable only to on-energy resources since the use of a material as an energy resource results in its useless dissipation into the atmosphere. In other words Reprocessing unwanted products (e.g. newspapers, scrap metals, glass, and sewage, etc).

(ii)Waste Reduction: It will automatically ensure lesser exploitation of resources. Waste reduction can be achieved by appropriately redesigning industrial processes so that there will be technological efficiency in utilizing the resource and avoidance of waste to the minimum. In other words, Further, the waste of one industry can be used as the raw material of another industry.

(iii)Material Substitution: the use of a material resource can be restricted by finding an alternative resource. The problem in this is that many materials have extensive uses and also joint uses. In other words, the copper sheet can be substituted by aluminum, which at the same time would reduce demand for soldering agents made from and lead. Aluminum is being extensively substituted for tin, particularly, in the production of metal cans and containers.

(iv)Rewilding: Allowing areas to restore themselves naturally without interference by humans (except possible species reintroduction)

(i)Location: The spatial location of features are defined by coordinates in a specific reference system. In other words, they are represented by points, lines, or polygons and geometry of the three-dimensional representation in space.

(ii)Data Quality: it refers to the credibility and accuracy of the data or more generally how good the data is. In other words, quantitative quality relates to measurable components such as spatial accuracy. And the qualitative quality consists of those non-measured components, which usually relates to the entire data set and not to specific objects.

(iii)Generalization; relates to the level of scale and details associated with the object. Objects may be aggregated from larger to lower scale, while the opposite process is very limited. For example, if the countries layer can be aggregated into a states layer but the opposite cannot be accomplished without external data.

(iv)Entity versus field-based data: The world can be represented as a set of discrete entities such as forests, rivers, roads, and buildings. This is referred to as the Entity based approach. In other words, the field-based approach represents the world as a continuous function with attributes that vary in space. Natural phenomena such as air pollution distribution and terrain may be the best represented using this approach.

(i)It has the ability to improve organizational integration. GIS would then integrate software, hardware, and also data in order to capture, analyze, manage and so display all forms of information that are geographically referenced.

(ii)GIS would also allow viewing, questioning, understanding, visualizing, and interpreting the data into numbers of ways which will reveal relationships, trends, and patterns in the form of globes, maps, charts, and reports.

(i)GIS technology might be considered as expensive software.

(ii)It as well requires enormous data inputs amount that is needed to be practical for some other tasks and so the more data that is to put in.



Study the map extract of KASHIMBILA NW. on a scale of 1:50,000 and answer the following questions
(a) Evaluate the mapped area under the following headings:
(i) Relief
(ii) Drainage patterns; and
(iii) Settlement
(b) Explain with three reasons the cycles of development of River Katsian Ala

(2a) Give four effects of the Revolution of earth.
(b) Compare Equinox and Solstice with three examples
(c) Explain three reasons that make Summer: warm and bright, Winter: cold and dark in any of the hemispheres.

(3a) Explain with examples metamorphic rock under the following headings
(i) Mode of formation; and
(ii) Characteristics
(b) Explain three importance of rocks

(4a) Elucidate four ways climate affects Housing development.
(b) Identify four economic activities in the warm temperate climate western margins (Mediterranean type).

(5a) What is Water Table?
(b) With the aid of diagrams, explain the following features:
(i) Springs; and
(ii) Artesian Basin

(6a) List four components of Glacier deposition in lowland areas.
(b) Using a diagram, describe the mode of formation of Capes and Bays.

(7a) Define Environmental Conservation.
(b) Outline any four natural resources that need to be conserved.
(c) Discuss any four methods of natural resource conservation.

(8a) Discuss any four features of Geographical Information System(GIS)
(b) In a tabular form list two advantages and disadvantages each of Geographical Information System(GIS)

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Mr Noni

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