Paper III & II: Objective & Essay – Government
2:00pm – 4:40pm
Answer Five(5) Questions Only In All.
Two from section A and Three from section B
(Answer ONLY TWO Questions)
Sovereignty can be defined as the supreme power of the state to make and enforce laws within her territory without any external influence or interference.
(i) By Membership of international organizational organizations.
(ii) By signing of international treaties.
(iii) By customs and traditions of the republic
(iv) By technical and military aids
(v) By public opinion and land-locked.
Fiscal federalism is concerned with understanding which functions and instruments are best centralized and which are best placed in the sphere of decentralized levels of government. In other words, it is the study of how competencies (expenditure side) and fiscal instruments (revenue side) are allocated across different (vertical) layers of the administration.
Delegated Legislation is a term which covers the vast amount of Legislation made by Government Agencies and the Governor-General under authority of Acts of Parliaments, which delegate this power to agencies.
Collective responsibility is the convention whereby individual members of the government are held accountable for the actions and decisions of government as a whole.
Checks and balances principle of government under which separate branches are empowered to prevent actions by other branches and are induced to share power. In other words, Checks and balances are applied primarily in constitutional governments .
(Answer ONLY THREE Questions)
(i) The Preamble
(ii) The Government
(iii) The Territory
(iv) Separation of Powers
(i)The Preamble: This part of the constitution gives guidance to the constitution. Here we are given the chapter, sections, and subsections of the constitution and pages where they can be found. The preamble is meant to direct or serve as a content page of the Nigerian constitution. The preamble could also be found on the 3rd page of the Nigerian constitution of 1999.
(ii)The Government: There must be a government whether elective or not run the affairs of the state. The type of government does not matter. It may be a military regime coo loan administration, Oligarchy, Diarchy, Monarchy, there must be a government to be in-charge of the affairs of the states. In other words The government system is Nigeria according to the constitution shows that we are operating the presidential system of government that is the President as the ceremonial head and also the executive head and also the executive head. Section 130-140 of the 1999 constitution shows and takes about the President of the federation.
(iii) The territory: A state, legally is a defined boundary, although, such boundary is suppose to be permanent, if it change at all, such changes must not be at random. It is the territorial entities. A community with a defined territory must be inherited by human territory must be inherited by human beings the section 2 and 3 of the 1999 constitution talks about Nigeria as a territorial state.
(iv)The Separation of Powers: Separation of powers can be found in section 4, 5 and 6 of this sections delegate certain powers to be armor organs of Government in Nigeria. The Section 4 of the 1999 constitution talks about legislative arm of Government, Section 5 talk of the Executive and section 6 talks about solitary.
(v) The Sovereignty: Sovereignty could be defined as the ability for a nation to be total control without external interference. Nigeria according to 1999 constitution is a sovereign state and it can be found in section 2 of the Nigeria constitution.
(vi) The Federalism: Federalism has to do with the division of Government, state and local government,
And a federal system of no government is the ached by a ceremonial head known as the president it can be found in chapter part of the 1999 constitution of the federal republic of Nigeria.
(i)Religious functions: It was duty of the head of the council of Oyo Mesi, the Bashorun, to consult the Ifa oracle for the approval of the gods. Though the appointment of a new king was the duty of the Oyomesi, the new Alaafin was seen as an appointment by the gods.
(ii) Ensured policies were implemented: The Oyomesi was tasked with making sure that the policy decisions taken by the state was implemented throughout the empire. This was to ensure that there was full compliance.
(iii) Checks on the powers of the Oba: The Oyomesi served as a check on the powers of the Alaafin or king. Led by the Bashorun, the Oyomesi could dethrone the Alaafin if the people lost confidence in his administration.
(iv) Initiate laws: The Oyomesi had the power to initiate laws for consideration and subsequent adoption if deemed necessary for the efficient administration of the empire.
(v) Installation of a new Alaafin: Oyomesi was to take part in the installation of a new king after a candidate was found. The installation of kings was one of the high points in the administration of the empire and the Oyomesi made sure they partook in all its activities.
(vi) Select a new Alaafin: Oyomesi was to take part in the selection and replacement of the Alaafin or king when he died or abdicated his throne.
(i) The economic and social council help to serve as the central forum for discussions on international economic and social issues of other countries. In other words they also helps to promote higher standards of living.
(ii) The economic and social council helps to find solutions of international economic, social, health and related problems, and international cultural and educational cooperation. In other words they also helps to encourage universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms.
(iii)The economic and social council helps to assist the organization of major international conferences in the field of economic and social and related fields. In other words They make or initiate studies and reports with respect to the council.
(iv) The economic and social council helps international economic and social matters
to prepare draft conventions for submission to the General Assembly. In other words they help to coordinate the work of the specialized agencies and programme.
(v) The economic and social council helps to find solutions to international economic and social issues to undertake/ facilitate studies and bring out repots. In other words It studies the current challenges and proposes forward looking strategies for advancement and empowerment of women & girls.
(vi)The economic and social council helps prepare draft convention for UNGA arrange for consultations with NGO’s. In other words they co-ordination, and develop standards and norms for global statistical information system.
(i) Formulation of Policies: The senior administrative and technical civil servants help to formulate the policies and programmes of the government. These are presented to the ministers and commissioners for consideration and final decisions.
(ii) Drafting of Bills: Experts in the civil service, especially lawyers, assist the government in the drafting of bills which eventually become laws.
(iii) Advice to the ministers/commissioners: The top civil servants act as advisers to the ministers and commissioners in charge of their ministries. Their relevant expertise and experience afford them the opportunity of providing dependable guide and information on complex government policies and programmes. They also help the political appointees to furnish the legislature with relevant information requested on their ministry.
(iv) Implementation of government policies: The top civil servants coordinate and supervise their
subordinates to ensure the smooth execution of the policies and programmes of government. This ensures the provision
of amenities to improve the health, education, social and general life of their people.
(v)Preparation of annual estimates and budgets: The civil servants draft and prepare the annual budget and estimates of government ministries, departments and
(vi) Keeping government records and property: Civil servants gather and supply very useful information on which government policies and programmes are based. In other words They keep and preserve government property.
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