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Objective & Essay – Agricultural Science – 10:00am–12:30pm
Farm mechanization is the application of engineering principles and technology in agricultural production,storage and processing. Farm mechanisation is applicable to land preparation, planting, fertilizer application, weeding and crop harvesting, rearing, caring and feeding of animals as well as processing and storage of farm produce, using appropriate farm machinery.
(Pick any four)
(i) Small farm holding or land fragmentation or land tenure system does not permit mechanisation
(ii)The farming systems currently practiced do not encourage mechanisation
(iii)There is no access road for machines
(iv)High running costs of machinery discourages mechanization
(v)Machines or implements are expensive to purchase
(vi)Machines are costly to maintain.
(vii)There is inadequate extension services or education for farmers
(viii)Inadequate capital or credit facilities.
(i)Application of fertilizers
(ii)By making use of farm machines
(Pick Any Two)
(i)It provide portable water to the rural people for increased agricultural production.
(ii) It increase the total output per farmer with increased net revenue return.
(iii)It helps to bring more land under cultivation by increasing the farm size of a small scale farmer through the provision of land clearing services.
(iv)It provide irrigation facilities through construction of dams for all- year-round agricultural production.
(i)Poor marketing system:
(Pick Any Two)
(i)Government should buy excess produce from farmers
(ii)Government should stabilize prices of farm produce in the country
(iii)The activities of middlemen who buy produce at cheaper rates and sell at higher prices should be checked.
(iv)Commodity boards should be reestablished to help organize the marketing of agricultural produce.
(Pick any Two)
(i)Water conservation techniques such as mulching should be practise
(ii)Teaching peasant farmers new innovations in agriculture
(iii)Planting of cover crops like centrosema spp, calopogonium spp should be practised.
Soil drainage is a process whereby excess water in the soil is removed artificially to promote good farming activities. In order words, drainage is the withdrawal of excess water from the soil while at the same time retaining adequate reserves to carry the crops through the periods of scarcity
(Pick Any Four)
(i) Planting cover crops:Cover crops help to provide shade,prevent erosion and add more nutrient to the soil.
(ii) Mulching the soil: Mulching sandy soil prevents water loss through evaporation and nutrient loss by water erosion.
(iii) Application of compost manure: Application of compost manure helps to bind the sand particles together and also add humus(nutrients) to the soil.
(iv) Application of farm yard manure: This will also improve the structure of the soil as well as add nutrients to the soil.
(v)Avoidance of bush farming: Bush burning promotes soil erosion, kills soil organisms and remove organic matter which can contribute to the fertility of the soil.
(Pick Any Five)
(i)Mineral matter has moderating effects on soil temperature.
(ii)Mineral matter has affects soil porosity.
(iii) It forms the solid part of the soil and provides support for plants.
(iv) It represents the home of habitat of all soil living organisms.
(v) Mineral matter has moderating effects on soil temperature.
(vi)Mineral matter is the main source of plant nutrients such as nitrogen,calcium,magnesium and iron.
(Pick any Four)
Crop improvement is defined as the science that deal with the development of new crop varieties with superior quality and quantity. In other words, crop improvement refers to the ways of developing and breeding of crop varieties which are better than the existing varieties in a number of characters.
(Pick Any Five)
(i)The young forest trees receive direct and indirect attention from the the farmer
(ii)There is the availability of crop produce throughout the year.
(iii)It increase the income of the Farmer
(iv)Where land is scarce ,the farmer has a piece of land to cultivate
(v)When leguminous crops are used, the beneficial effect of root nodules increases soil fertility for the benefit of the forest trees
(i) They reduce the yield of crops
(ii) They can cause total death of crops plants
(iii) They can cause injuries which expose crops to disease attack
(iv) Some are carriers or vectors of diseases
(v) They reduce the quality of produce
(vi) The profits of farmers are reduced
(i) They serve as food for livestock
(ii) They help to reduce the cost of feeding animals
(iii) They serve as cover crops
(Pick Any Three)
(i)It ensures that only the best naturally available animal is selected.
(ii)Animals with desirable characteristics are selected
(iii)Animals with undesirable characteristics are detected and rejected.
(iv)It reduces the spread of parasites association with breeding stocks.
(v)Selection reduces the spread of diseases.
(Pick Any Four)
(i)The animal becomes restless and sometimes also isolates itself from other animals
(ii)The animal shows signs of sexual excitement
(iii)The reaction of the animal to feed is reduced or totally lost.
(iv)The animal develops unusual high body temperature
(v)There would be mucus discharge from the animal’s vullva.
(vi)The animal keeps urinating frequently and in very minute volumes.
(Pick Any Four)
(i)Good feeding: Animal should be properly fed in order to resist diseases attack.
(ii)Isolation: All sick animals should be isolated from healthy ones to pens where they will be treated separately
(iii)Breeding: Disease resistant stocks should be bred in the farm
(iv)vaccination: Farm animals should be vaccinated or immunised at the right time.
(v)Hygiene: Good hygiene or sanitary measures must be taken to prevent infection of farm animals
(Pick Any Five)
(i)Regular feeding: The fish must be fed twice daily form selected points
(ii)Deweeding: This is the removal of weeds from the pond
(iii)Aeration: Aeration enables oxygen to dissolve in water which is required by fish for respiration
(iv)constant supply of water: The pond should always be filled with water and any leakage repaired.
(v)Regular application of fertilizer: This should be done once in a month to promote the growth of fish pond(planktons)in the pond.
(vi)prevention of disease: diseases should be prevented as this could kill all the fish in the pond.
Supply of rice can be defined as the quantity of rice which a producer is willing and ready to offer for sale at a given price over a given period of time. It can also be defined as the ability and willingness to offer for sale specific quantities of rice at alternative prices, over a given period of time.
(Pick any four)
(ii)Income of the consumer
(iv)Period of Festivals
(vi)Change in Taste of consumer
(Pick Any Six)
(i) Agricultural Development projects
(ii) Agro services centres
(iii) Operations Feed Yourself
(iv) Farm settlement schemes
(v)River Basins and rural development authority
(vi) National agricultural land development agency
(vi) Directorate For Food, Roads and Rural infrastructure (DEFRRI)
(vii)National Fedama development project
(viii)Tikonko Agricultural Extension
(Pick Any four)
(iii)Supervised agricultural credit scheme
(iv)Thrift and saving societies
(vii)Micro finance banks
(viii)International Development Agencies (IDAs)
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