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NECO Government Questions and Answers 2021
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Objective & Essay – Government –10:00am–12:40pm
ANSWER FIVE QUESTIONS IN ALL.
TWO(2) FROM SECTION A, AND THREE(3) FROM SECTION B.
Authority refers to the formal or legal right to make and enforce laws or policies which the citizens obey. Authority connotes the acceptance of the right to rule as conferred by the people, irrespective of the sanctions.
(Pick Any Five)
(i) Traditional Authority: This is found in simple traditional societies, where the chief or council of elders exercise authority based on customs and traditions of the people.
(ii)Charismatic Authority: This us authority derived from the belief in the exceptional ability of a leader which inspires allegiance among the followers.
(iii)Legal/Rational authority: This is derived from the constitution of a modern Democratic state, exercised through the three organs of government.
(iv)Technical authority: It is based on the level of expertise the individual has acquired on the job. This kind of authority has to be respected, recognized and accepted in that particular area concerned .
(v)Political authority: It is the authority conferred on persons holding political offices eg the president and legislators . Policies made and executed are based on the provisions of the constitution.
(vi)Coercive authority: It is the authority based on the use of force. The fear of the consequence for not accepting or obeying such authority is always there, eg military dictatorship.
(vii)Delegated Authority: This authority is mostly given to someone to exercise functions and responsibility on specific areas.
(i)Constitution: Constitution is the basic principles and laws of a nation, state, or social group that determine the powers and duties of the government and guarantee certain rights to the people in it. Constitution of most states are supreme. It defines the powers exercised by the various levels of government. It therefore limits the power of the government.
(ii)The electorate: Electorate may refer to the people who are eligible to vote in an election. It is the body of persons entitled to vote in an election. They posses ultimate power in a state. Therefore, any government should be responsible to the people whose collective affairs it directs and control.
(iii)Public opinion: Public opinion is the collective opinion on a specific topic or voting intention relevant to a society. In democracies, governments are open and accommodating. They take into consideration, the opinion of the people when formulating policies . This is limitation to the exercise of their power.
(iv)The military: Military is the armed forces responsible for securing and defending a country. The military through forceful removal of Democratic government is a limitation to the sovereignty of the state. The tradition mostly exhibited by the military is by suspending the constitution of the state after taking over the power.
(v)Custom and Traditions:Custom is a usage or practice common to many or a particular place or group of people. Tradition is the transmission of customs or beliefs from generation to generation. Customs and tradition of the people are mostly considered by the state before or when making policies and laws.
(vi)Religion and culture: Religion is a social-cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, morals, beliefs, worldviews, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations. Religion and culture play a very important role in the political affairs of a nation. When making of policies and law in the state, religion and culture of the people are mostly considered by the government.
Political socialization is defined as the process of acquiring political beliefs, values, attitude as well as citizenship training that shapes a citizen’s political behaviour. It is also the process of political learning from childhood to adulthood. It is a life-long developmental process.
(Pick Any Five)
(i)Family unit: Family unit means a group of individuals residing together who are related by birth, marriage, or adoption. Transmission of knowledge about politics, authority and allocation of values probably starts at home. The child’s knowledge and experience of political activities start at family unit
(ii)The peer group: Peer group is a group of people who share certain social characteristics, such as age, class, occupation, or education, and interact on a level of equality. Peer groups are known for their influential nature as they’re able to shape the decisions of other group members. The group one moves with helps to dictate or at least influence one’s political emotion.
(iii)Institution of learning: Educational institution is a place where people of different ages gain an education, including preschools, childcare, primary-elementary schools, secondary-high schools, and universities. Schools, colleges and other educational institutions provide avenue for political talks, debates and discussion which are basic socializing mechanism
(iv)Political party: Political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a specific country’s elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas about politics, and parties may promote specific ideological or policy goals. They educate their members and other people through their manifesto, campaign, rallies etc thereby stimulating people’s political awareness.
(v)Pressure group: A pressure group is an organization that seeks to influence elected officials to take action or make a change on a specific issue. Pressure groups equally educate their members and even the public through conferences, seminars etc especially, in the areas of political and civic rights
(vi)The mass media: Mass media refers to a diverse array of media technologies that reach a large audience via mass communication. Broadcast media transmit information electronically via media such as films, radio, recorded music, or television. Radio, TV, newspapers etc disseminate a lot of political news and also analyse political issues thereby socializing listeners, readers and viewers politically.
(i)The armed force Ruling council: This was the supreme body which performed legislative function. This was composed of the service chiefs, top ranking military officers, inspector – General of police, Attorney – General, with the president as chairman
(ii)The council minister: It was composed of the president, vice president and the ministers some of whom are military officers, while others were civilians. The council performed executive functions with the president as chairman.
(iii)The national Council of state: It is composed of the Head of state/President, chief of General staff, Minister of defence, service chiefs of the army, the Navy and the Air force, the inspector General of Police, Attorney – General and Military Governors.
(iv)The judiciary: It remained the same as in the civilian era with Chief Justice as the head. Inclusive era various tribunals which had judges and military officers as members.
(v)The civil service: The secretary to the military government us head of public services. Director Generals replaced the permanent secretaries by the 1988 civil service reforms.
(vi)Supreme military council/ Armed forces ruling council: this body is the highest legislative body of the military government in Nigeria. It comprises of the Head of state/president who is the chairman, the chief of defence staff, the heads of the Army, Navy and Air Force popularly called the service chiefs, the inspector general of police, justice minister, secretary to the federal military government and high ranking military officers.
Political party is defined as an organized group of citizens who share similar political ideology, opinion, principles, interest, beliefs and act together as a political unit, having distinctive aims and objectives involving political questions in the state and acting together and seeking to obtain control of government.
(i)Nominate Candidates: Political parties are responsible for selecting candidates who will run for political office. The parties choose candidates who believe in the party’s platform. These candidates represent the party’s members and help to spread the party’s message during elections
(ii)Influence Policy: Members of the Senate and the House of Representatives are also members of political parties. The senators and representatives from each party often work together as a group to create and pass laws that support their party’s platform. The laws Congress passes affect the policies of our government. People in each political party want the government’s policies to reflect their own party’s platform.
(iii)Unite Government: People in the same political party are connected because they are members of the same organization. Most members of the government on the local, state, or national level are party members. A party can link its members at different levels of government to achieve big goals for the party.
(iv)Create Balance: The most powerful political party is the one that has the most members elected to office. Being in the majority means the party can focus the government’s attention on issues that are important to the party’s platform. The party in the minority works hard to oppose the majority party and keep it in check. Usually the majority party is able to get many laws passed. Depending on the minority party’s strength, the majority may need to compromise with the minority before a law will pass
(v)Inform Citizens: Political parties run campaigns for candidates. During campaigns,political parties run television ads, distribute pamphlets, post blogs, and help candidates give speeches. All of this media helps people understand what the political issues are and how government works. But beware: All of the information a political party distributes is biased toward its own party platform. Because of this, a political party should not be a citizen’s only source of information.
(Pick Any Six)
(i)Peace and security: Through membership and interaction existing in these international or regional organization eg U.N.O and AU member states are meant to abide by the principles governing these bodies thereby promoting peace and security world wide.
(ii) Closer relationship: Especially in the areas of sports, musical and cultural concerts etc, nations are drawn closer mutually. They relate intimately with one another and by so doing conflicts are eliminated.
(iii)Economic advancement: Interactions bring about states benefiting from others that are more economically viable, especially in the areas of natural endowment, technology etc
(iv)Cultural and Social benefit: States benefit immensely from others, especially through sports, cultural exchange etc. They learn from one another as it brings them closer together.
(v)Removal of interference: Political interaction removes the tendency of one state or more interfering in the domestic affairs of other states or even trying yo dominant others.
(vi)Foreign aids: Interactions means states can attract technological, financial and technical aids to developing countries from the developed ones
(vii)spread of civilization and modernization: Interactions among nations of the world can spread civilization SNF modernization and even help to promote tourism as well.
(i) Disruption in the education sector: There was a disruption in the education of students in some parts of the country. Many institutions of learning were destroyed while others were closed. The war caused an academic setback in the country.
(ii)Nigeria image abroad dent: The image of the country were adversely affected because of the war propaganda. Some foreign countries regarded the war as one between Christians and Muslims.
(iii)Growth of urban areas: There was mass exodus of people from the rural setting to towns and cities in search of jobs and other means of livelihood. This had given rise to growth of towns and cities in Nigeria. The result also was an increase in crime wave.
(iv)Economic standstill: Economic activities in the country were almost at a stand still. Many factories and industries stopped production because of the war.
(v)Displacement of families/increase in crime rate: Families were displaced and innocent citizens suffered untold hardship. There was increased crime wave in the country as discharged soldiers were not fully demobilized
(vi)Cost/ currency policy: The war costs the nation a lot of money. Property investments and an unestimated numbers of lives were lost. The currency policy of the federal government made some sections of the country poorer.
2021 NECO Government Questions & Answers [4th August, 2021]
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