(1)Separators Dairy Equipment.
(2)Homogenizer Dairy Equipment.
(3)Pasteurizers Dairy Equipment.(2b)
(Steps for Pasteurization of milk)
(1)Pour the raw milk into the stainless steel pot.
(2)Slowly heat the milk to 145 degrees Fahrenheit, stirring occasionally
(3)Hold the temperature at 145 F for exactly 30 minutes.
(4)Remove the pot of milk from the heat and place it in a sink or large bowl filled with ice water.
(5)Store pasteurized milk in the refrigerator.
(1)They purchase product in bulk
(2)They provide storage facilities
(3)They provide good transport facilities
(4)They pass information from retailers to producer and vise versa
(1)They make produce readily available to the customers
(2)They provide jobs for many people
(3)They pass information from the consumers to the wholesalers
(4)They give credits to some consumers
(1)The board provides an organised and ready market for various agricultural commodities
(2)it helps to stabilise the prices of farm produce
(3)The board sometimes provides capital to farmers
(1)They stimulate competition in produce marketing by buying produce in bulk
(2)They have close contact with producers
(3)They reduce the inequality of income distribution by selling to members at reduced rate
(i)Coffee brewing machine
(ii)Coffee bean grinding machine
(iv)Bread slicing machine
(i)Zebu cattle are usually red or grey in colour
(ii)They are horned
(iii)They have loose skin
(iv)They have large ears and have a hump above their
(v)This breed is used for its milk, meat and as draft animals
(i)the regulation of body temperature
(iii)Hypocalcaemia (milk fever)
(iv)Ketosis (pregnancy toxaemia)
(v)Mineral deficiencies, including copper, selenium, cobalt and phosphorus
(i) Castration reduces male aggression and thereby makes males easier to
(ii) There is a risk of unwanted matings if there are uncastrated males on the farm, other than those required for breeding.
(iii) Due apparently to traditional butchers’ prejudices, castrated male meat is marketed higher than that of uncastrated meats.
(iv) Performance and conversion rates can be itnpr<>ved by castration.
(v) It helps in preventing production of unwanted or undesirable offspring
(i) The cheaper methods of castration; which the farmer can do himself,require a degree of skill. With such methods there is a risk of infection.
(ii) The alternative, of calling in a veterinary surgeon, adds to costs.
(iii) Castration involves somne time.
DRAW & LABEL PARTS OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM OF A DOMESTIC FOWL
CLICK HERE FOR THE IMAGE
Mouth –> egg hatches –> intestines –> larva
– it’s bites can cause severe irritation
– heavy louse infestation can lead to restlessness
– Emaciation or loss of weight
– the sores may create room for pathogens to attack the animal
– Scratching for the bites results to sores
– heavy louse infestation can cause death
– isolate infected animals
– Avoid overcrowding of animals
– maintain good sanitation
– spray the animal host with insecticides
– Regular dipping of animals in solutions containing ascaricides
Protozoa (Eimeria spp)
– blood stained diarrhoea
– change of litter after some time
– vaccination should be regular
– maintain good sanitary measures
– apply coccidiastat to their drinking water
(i) Bees make honey out of flower nectar for use as a food source
(ii) Bees play an important role in the pollination of many flowering plants, thus increasing the yield of certain crops
(iii) Honey is a highly nutritious
(iv) The market potential for honey and wax is high, so it serves as a means of income.
(v) Bee Pollen and Propolis are natural remedies
(i) Join a local beekeeping association
(ii) Choose a Site
(iii) Create a Stand
(iv) Build a Hive
(v) Consider your equipment
(vi) Get Some Bees
(vii) Review your local by-laws and register your hives
(vii) Protect yourself
(viii) Look and learn
(ix) Keep notes
(i) Use a hybrid or cross bred female.
(ii) Satisfy the nutritional requirements of the sow both in pregnancy and lactation.
(iii) Bring a healthy sow into the farrowing house.
(iv) Achieve good birth weights.
(v) Ensure each pig receives maximum colostrum at birth.
Artificial pasture refers to an area of land covered with forage grasses and legumes which are deliberately planted by man.
i) extend the growing season of a pasture
ii) increase the organic matter content of the soil over time because of grass root systems
iii) reduce weed encroachment
iv) reduce erosion
v) produce higher yields
vi) improve the palatability
(ii)intensive farming systems “landless”
(iii)extensive production system
(I) it includes both agriculture and livestock
(ii)it can be either intensive or extensive.
(iii)it used for exploitation of both irrigated or non-irrigated land and they are common in some parts of America, Europe and Asia.
(i) it is mainly used for livestock.
(ii)it is used to breed pigs, chickens, laying hens, cattle and even fish
(iii)they are common in north America, Europe and Asia and in heavy populated areas in general, where the demand for meat and proteins is very high.
(i)it is used on large non-cultivated land where animals can graze freely
(ii)it is use for cattle, to produce meat and milk, sheep and goats.
(iii)It is more common in Central and South America
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