Commerce 2 (Essay) 2pm – 4pm
Commerce 1 (Objective) 4pm – 4:50pm
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(i) The cost
(ii) The target audience
(iii)Nature of the goods
(i)It increases profit
(ii) It provides information about features
(iii)It also stimulates demands
(iv)It helps I’m creating job opportunities
(i)improving the profitability of the firm.
(ii)Carrying out restriction of output,
(iii)control of price,
(iv)allocation of market shares.
(i)They base their decisions on the full costs and benefits
(ii)They can be used to influence economic activity. To boost the country’s output, public corporations can be directly encouraged to increase their output.
(iii)In cases where it is practical to have only one firm in the industry, such as rail infrastructure, a public corporation would not abuse its market power.
(i)They can be difficult to manage and control. The large size of the organisations may mean that time has to be spent on meetings and communicating with staff, slowing down decision making.
(ii)They may become inefficient, produce low-quality products, and charge relatively high prices, due to a lack of competition and the knowledge that they cannot go bankrupt.
(iii)They will need to be subsidized if they are loss-making. The use of tax revenue to support them has an opportunity cost it could be used to spend on, say, training more teachers and nurses.
(i) Bill of exchange
(ii) Hire purchase contract
(iii) Promissory note
(vi) Credit card
(v) Bank draft
(i) Can get a significant amount of money at the rate of time
(ii) Allows emergency purchases
(iii) Money may not need to be paid back
(iv) Can create space for more profitable uses
(i) Might not get the full market value of the assets or even be able to sell them at all
(ii) Money may be lost if the business fails
(iii) Difficult for a new business to access
(i)Best Location: One of the key starting points in putting up a retail store is the right location. Getting into an ideal business location is a sustainable advantage since a competitor can’t copy or steal your spot.
(ii)Competitive Factors: Competitive factors also impact the effectiveness of a retail start-up. The ideal scenario exists when you start a distinct business that offers sizable marketplace goods or services they value and can’t get elsewhere.
(iii)Financial Capital: You have two basic ways to start a retail business. You can build one from scratch or invest in a franchise, where you purchase the rights to an existing model.
(iv)Legal and Regulatory Environment: You also need to understand legal and regulatory facts that impact your industry. Some industries are heavily regulated, while others have minimal government regulations.
(i)The government regulates business name registration through CAC – Corporate Affairs Commission
Government patent use law is a statute that is a “form of government immunity from patent claims.
The government regulates trademark through its trademark law
The Commission is the Government agency responsible for all copyright matters in Nigeria including the administration, regulation.
(Choose Any four)
(i) Through the stock exchange market which is part of the capital market, fund or capital can be raised or mobilized by companies and investors
(ii)Stock exchange market provides Financial Market where people can invest their money in shares of companies
(iii)Stock exchange facilitates the transfer of ownership of shares between investors.
(iv)stock exchange market Provide Avenue for Government to Raise fund
(v)The stock exchange market provides professional advice to investors on sales and management of securities
(5bi)Debenture: A debenture is a document which acknowledges a loan generally under the company’s seal, bearing a fixed rate of interest. it usually gives security for replacement of loans as well as the interest. Holders of debenture certificate have no voting right
(5bii)Bond: A bond is a security issued by a government or its agency or private institution as a means of raising funds. Bonds are usually due to be redeemed at some future date, and they carry a fixed rate of interest.
(5biii)Shares: Shares can be defined as an individual portion of the company’s capital owned by shareholders. It is the interest which a shareholder has in a company. In other words, a share is a unit of capital measured by a sum of money.
(5biv)Stock: stock can be defined as the bundle of shares or mass of capital which can be transferred in fractional amount. They are always fully paid, e.g it can be quoted per #100 nominal value.
(i)Provides Technical Support To Exporters
(ii)Simplifies Export Procedures
(iii)Provides Grants And Incentives
(iv)Simplifies Export Procedures
(v)Provides Exportable Products’ List
(i)Collect and revenue for the government by charging customs excise duties.
(ii)keep and analyze records of imported and exported goods and services.
(iii)Control bonded warehouses to ensure that duty is collected for imported dutiable goods before releasing them.
(iv)Supervise public health by arranging quarantine for animals, pets coming into the country thus controlling infectious disease.
(v)Supervise entrepots (re-export) trade to ensure that no duty is charged and collected on goods destined to another country.
Trading profit and loss account
Opening stock 20,000
Carriage inward 4000
Less closing stock 35,000
Cost of goods sold 139,000
Gross profit 91,000
Net profit 62,00
cost of goods sold = Le 139,000
Gross profit = Le 91,000
Net profit = Le 62,000
Percentage of Gross profit Gross profit/sales * 100/1
91,000/230,000 * 100/1