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Further Mathematics/Mathematics(Elective) 2 (Essay) 9:30am. –12:00noon.
Further Mathematics/Mathematics(Elective) 1 (Objective) 3:30pm. –5:00pm.
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INSTRUCTIONS: YOU’RE TO ANSWER TWO(2) QUESTIONS FROM SECTION A, AND THREE(3) FROM SECTION B
Entrance Fees or Admission Fees is the amount that a person pays at the time of becoming a member of a Not-for-Profit Organization. It is a revenue receipt. Therefore, we account it as an income and credit it to Income and Expenditure Account.
A subscription is a signed agreement between a supplier and customer that the customer will receive and provide payment for regular products or services, usually for a one-year period.
(Pick Any five)
(i) No Opening Balance:- Opening balance is not require to prepare income and expenditure account.
(ii) Accrual Basis:- Income and expenditure account is maintained on accrual basis.
(iii) Based On Receipt And Payment Account:- Income and expenditure account is prepared on the basis of receipt and payment account at the end of the accounting year.
(iv) Non-cash Items:- This account records non-cash items also
(v) Debit And Credit Rule:- Expenses and losses are debited and incomes are credited as it is a nominal account.
(vi) No Capital Transactions:- Only revenue items are included in income and expenditure account. So, capital items are excluded while preparing this account.
(vii) Only Current Year’s Transactions:- Income and expenditure account includes only current periods transactions.
(1a) Accounting concepts are a set of general conventions that can be used as guidelines when dealing with accounting situations.
(I) Business Entity: The business entity concept states that the transactions associated with a business must be separately recorded from those of its owners or other businesses.
(II) Accrual: The accrual principle is an accounting concept that requires transactions to be recorded in the time period in which they occur, regardless of when the actual cash flows for the transaction are received.
(III) Going concern: is an accounting term for a company that is financially stable enough to meet its obligations and continue its business for the foreseeable future.
(IV) Consistency: The concept of consistency means that accounting methods once adopted must be applied consistently in future
(V) Periodicity: The periodicity concept is a period during which business enterprises are required to prepare financial statement at specified intervals.
(VI) Historical cost: A historical cost is a measure of value used in accounting in which the value of an asset on the balance sheet is recorded at its original cost when acquired by the company.
Bank reconciliation statement is a summary of banking and business activity that reconciles an entity’s bank account with its financial records. In other words the statement outlines the deposits, withdrawals, and other activities affecting a bank account for a specific period.
Bank charges covers all charges and fees made by a bank to their customers. In common parlance, the term often relates to charges in respect of personal current accounts or checking account.
Standing order is an instruction a bank account holder gives to their bank to pay a set amount at regular intervals to another’s account. The instruction is sometimes known as a banker’s order.
Credit transfer” means a payment transaction by which a credit institution transfers funds to a payee’s account on the basis of a payer’s order, and the payer and the payee can be the same person.
Dishonoured cheques are cheques that a bank on which is drawn declines to pay. There are a number of reasons why a bank would refuse to honour a cheque, with non-sufficient funds being the most common one, indicating that there are insufficient cleared funds in the account on which the cheque was drawn.
Unpresented cheque simply means that a cheque has been written and accounted for, but it has not yet been paid out by the bank from which the money is being drawn. Unpresented cheques are also referred to as outstanding cheques because the funds in question are, as the name suggests, outstanding.
Uncredited cheques represent money that is available to the company but has not yet been recognised by the bank. This comes in the form of cheques paid in by customers and clients.
Secret cult is an enclosed organized association or group of people devoted to the same cause. It is also referred to as a dangerous and deadly group that share common ideologies, believe in secret, esoteric, mystic and engage in violent practices. Members if the cult groups commit themselves to oath allegiance, which serves as their strong bond.
(i)Public campaign against cultism: Different organizations, including the government, schools, religious institutions, and parents, should promote awareness against cultism. Seminars and workshops should be organized to discuss the dangers of cultism all over schools without leaving out the primary schools.
(ii)Government Standard: The government should also make laws to punish cultists for pushing away students and young people from joining these groups. The political leaders supporting them should also be put to judgment because they are damaging other children’s lives to make theirs better;
(iii)Discipline and Studying hard in school to achieve success: Students should be kept busy and engage in school via curricular and extra curricular activities. Because it is a known fact that an “idle mind is the devil’s workshop”. When students are engage with hard work, they will not have time to join cult.
(iv)Moral Education should be made compulsory in the primary and secondary schools in the country.Parents should take time to understand their children, give enough time to listen to them at home and satisfy their emotional psychological and physical needs.
Civil society organization: Civil society organization are groups of people who came together to pursue a common cause or goal and equally provide an alternative to pressure groups in many areas like politics,human right matters etc. They are non-governmental organization (NGOs) who are defenders of laws,fundamental rights,justices and good governance.
Free and independent press: The press is one of the vital institutions in the practice of government and also a major pillar of true democracy. No democracy exists without free press. The press can be described as the total sum of all the organization and systems that make up the mass media of any given society. The press or mass media includes all agents of public opinion and the watch dog that speaks through the voice or by pen.
Political party: Political party is an organization of citizens who act together as a political unit,having distinctive aims and objectives involving political questions in the state and acting together and seeking to obtain controls of government. Political parties are usually the institutions involved in the electoral contests. They exist in order to contest elections or bring about a condition that will lead to election of people’s representatives to legislative and executive councils.
(i) Anti Party activities: some party members are disloyal and involved in anti party activities which will lead to competition among each party
(ii)Irresponsible acts: Most of the party leaders are irresponsible. Many of them were imposed on party members or faithfuls. Irresponsible acts lead to division and competition among parties.
(iii)corruption and favouritism: Political parties are always guilty of nepotism ,bribery and corruption. Corruption and favouritism is one of the major cause of competition among parties
Youth empowerment is an idea or programmes fashioned to enable the youth learn skills,trade or profession . it is inherent in the idea of training and education. Youth empowerment aims at laying a solid foundation for sustainable poverty reduction ,employment generation, wealth creation and value orientation.
(i) Life Coping Skills: These are natural skills which every organism including man, acquires from birth to adapt fittingly in his or its environment. They are survival Instincts or skills.
(ii) Manipulative Skills: These skills are seen in skills acquisition centres as it involves economic activities that inculcate skills such as technical education.
(iii) Intellectual Skills: These skills are coordinates in character. It is the literary or theoretical frameworks that guide the practical aspects of the works, economic and scientific undertakings
(iv) Communicative Skills: Communication is a very important aspect of our life. Man evolved communications skills as a social being to enable him pass or send information from one person to the other or from place to place.
(v) Artistic Skills: These are close to communicative skills and are more complex. Includes they art of good writing, fine and applied arts, music and drama. These skills make effective use of all the other four kinds of skills where necessary.
(vi)Decision-making skills; These can be the difference in making a choice that improves your organization. The aptitude to make decisions is a leadership trait, which portrays your ability to think objectively and relates concepts to the goals you’re trying to reach.
(i)Right to life: Life is the greatest gift of God. We must do our best to protect our lives and while we do this, we must not do things that will destroy other people’s lives of put them in danger.
(ii)Freedom of speech: The UDHR declare that human beings have the right to speak their minds or express their opinion without dear of being intimidated or punished.
(iii)Freedom of Assembly: We all have the right to gather together with out friends and gold meeting in any place of our choice . Nobody can force us to join any group against our will.
(iv)Freedom from fear: We all have the right to be protected by the law and have the right to live as citizen of our country without fear
(v)Freedom from Want: The basic of man should be provided by out various government. Those needs are food, clothing and shelter. This is why the UDHR has listed it as one of the core freedom.
(vi)Freedom from discrimination: Everyone is entitled to all the Right and freedoms in the UDHR. Nobody should be discriminated against because of race, sex, religion, color, language, birth etc.
(vii)Freedom of movement: We all have the right to move about freely in our country and to go where we want to go without being harassed. If the government imposes curfew, it limits your freedom of movement.
(i)Study and know your Fundamental Human Rights and the Articles of the UDHR: You cannot claim Rights if you do not know that they exist and you cannot immediately quote them when the need arises. Ignorance is the greatest challenge to the UDHR.
(ii)Individuals who know their Rights must help Teach Others: Do not keep the knowledge to yourself alone. You must be ready to alert other people when their Fundamental Human Rights have been violated and teach them what to do to seek redress. You can do this when discussing with friends in your school
(iii)Groups can channel Advocacy through the print and Electronic media: Each Human rights group should have a website where they can be reached easily . they can publish abuses of human rights and their recommendations in newspaper,magazines and journals. They can also speak put through the radio and television
(iv)Groups can organize a forum from Time to Time and Educate people on human right: They can organize lectures on good governance and how government can help to promote and preserve human rights. In Nigeria a group known as human right watch has devoted much energy ,time and resources to educate people on the need for preservation of human right and championing the cause of the helpless.
Modern mode of popular participation is the mode of popular participation carried out through expressing of oneself through the mass media.
[Pick Any SiX] (i) Legitimacy of elected governments: If citizens actively participate in electoral process, society will have an elected legitimate government.
(ii) National development: There will be rapid socio-economic development if citizens participate in the electoral or political process.
(iii) Political stability: This ensures law and order for economic and political development in the society.
(iv) Responsible and responsive government: The society will elect or get a government that is receptive to the people’s concerns, needs and aspirations.
(v) Political awareness: When citizens participate in the electoral/political process, they will become politically conscious, enjoy their rights and perform corresponding duties and obligations to the society.
(vi) Credible elections: When citizens actively participate in the electoral or political process it will confer credibility on the process.
(vii) Peaceful order of succession: Peaceful transition is ensured from one regime to another.
(viii) Peace and harmony: When citizens actively participate in the political process they will enjoy peace and harmony without much agitation.
(ix) Accountability, transparency, due process and probity: Active participation of citizens in the political process ensures accountability, transparency, due process and probity in governance for the common good of the society.
Waec Further Maths 2021 Answers
Waec Further Maths Answers 2021
Waec Further Maths 2021
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