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Waec Government Questions and Answers 2022. For the National exam Council (June/July 2022. Government Answers. This article will provide you with a variety of questions, as well as answers to the questions on your Waec Government exam 2022. This article will help you to understand what you will be asked in the Waec Government answers 2022.

Table of Contents

How to Subscribe For WAEC Government 2022 MIDNIGHT ANSWERS


Government 2 (Essay) – 09:30am – 11:30am
Government 1 (Objective) – 11:30am – 12:30pm



(i) Failure of the past government: Due to the failure of the past government in fulfilling fair promises

(ii) Fear of intimidation: This may discourage the individuals the opportunity of expressing his opinions freely and this may affect his trust in the government

(iii) Aparthy/Lack of interest: This may create distrust or barrier between individuals and government

(iv) Poverty: This may discourage citizens to trust government due to high level of Poverty in the country

(v) Ignorance/illiteracy: The efforts of this is that citizens may not see the need to participate in politics due to their lack of knowledge on the government activities


(i) Independence of the electoral body: The electoral body should be made autonomous rather than appendages of the executive arm government. Government should not interfere with the conduct of election.

(ii) Secret balloting: Voting should be done sectretly, so as to give the voters the freedom to vote for canditate of their choice.

(iii) Political education of the electorates: The electorates should be educated on their rights and how to identify party symbols and the proper manner of voting.

(iv) Non-inference: There should be no political interference in the affairs of the commission

(v) Appointment: The officials of the commission should not be appointed by the executive government. It should be done by the independent body whic is the commission.

(vi) Integrity: Those to be appointed into the commission must be people of proven integrity and transparent honesty.

(vii) Legal backing: The commission should be adequately backed up with the laws to enable it command respect and obedience from political parties and candidates




(i) Settlement of disputes: The traditional rulers performed some judicial functions by settling dispute among the people in their community

(ii) Creation of law enforcement: They also created law enforcement institutions like e.g age grades and masquerade to enable them maintain law and order in the community.

(iii) The use of ancestral spirits: The ancestral spirits were used by the traditional rulers to control their subjects which they believ guides their footseps.

(iv) The use of sanction and punishments: These measures were applied against law breakers in the community, e.g banishment.

(v) The introduction of rewards: people who had contributed to the development of their areas were rewarded with titles or distribution of land and war booty.

(vi) Appointment of Chiefs: Chiefs were appointed by traditional rulers in order to use them to control their subjects

(vii) Conscription of youths: The traditional rulers conscripted youths to perform forced labour and serve in the British army during the world wars.

(i) Settlement of disputes: The pre-colonial traditional rulers settled disputes. Disputes are normal in every society and pre-colonial societies in West Africa were no exception. Any dispute that arose was settled by the chiefs. Culprits were punished and the innocent were set free. This was one of the ways chiefs controlled their subjects.

(ii) Law enforcement: There were law enforcement institutions in place to ensure law enforcement. Some of the enforcement institutions were the Age grades, masquerades, and militant groups like the Asafo companies among the Akans. These enforcement institutions were used in controlling the subjects.

(iii) Use of ancestral spirits: The traditional belief that when the living misbehaved, the dead who lived in the after world could punish them, was another ingenious way of controlling the people. This belief in the underworld was common in pre-colonial times and nobody wanted to be on the wrong side of the gods hence they obeyed the laws thus helping the chiefs maintain control.

(iv) Customs or taboos and conventions: There were things that the traditional society frowned upon and the society never compromised on them. These were aspects of their customs, taboos, and conventions. Any infraction of the customs, taboos or conventions attracted a certain form of fine or sanctions. This way, the chiefs were able to control their subjects.

(v) Oath taking: In pre-colonial times, one of the ways of ascertaining the truth was the taking of an oath, to tell the truth. There were serious repercussions for anybody who took the oath and still went ahead to tell a lie. The oath was usually taken before the gods of the land represented by the Chief Priests. Sub-chiefs were also made to swear oaths to remain loyal to the Paramount Chief. All these helped to keep them in line.

E Government is defined as the employment of the internet and the world wide web for delivering government information and services to the citizen. E government describes the use of technology to facilitate the operation of government and the dispersement of information and services.

(i)Ultimate goal: The ultimate goal of the E government is to be able to offer an increased portfolio of public services to citizens in an efficient and cost effective manner. E-government allows for government transparency. This is important because it allows the public to be informed about what the government is working on as well as the policies they are trying to implement.

(ii)Efficient performance: Many changes such as marital status or addresses can be a long process and take a lot of paper work for citizens. E-government allows these tasks to be performed efficiently with more convenience to individuals.

(iii)Political participation: E-government is an easy way for the public to be more involved in political campaigns. It could increase voter awareness which could lead to an increase in citizen participation in elections.

(iv)Convenient and cost effective: It is convenient and cost-effective for businesses and the public benefits by getting easy access to the most current information available without having to spend time, energy and money to get it.

(v)Accessibility: E-government helps to simplify processes and makes access to government information more easily accessible for public sector agencies and citizen

(vi) Accountability: E Government transparency will give insight to the public on how decisions are made and hold elected officials or accountable for their actions. The public public servants could become a direct and prominent influence in government legislation to some degree.

(vii)Interaction with computers: E government allows the citizen to interact with computers to achieve objectives at any time and any location and eliminates the necessity for physical travel to government agents sitting behind desks and windows.

(viii)Quicker processing time: Improved accounting and record keeping can be noted through computerization and information and forms can be easily accessed, equating quicker processing time.

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WAEC GOVERNMENT 2022 Aims and Objectives

This syllabus aims at assessing the candidates’ ability to

(a) define the concepts of Government and show their understanding of its principles, institutions and processes.

(b) recognize their role as an informed citizens and their contributions towards the achievement of national development.

(c) evaluate the successes, failures and problems of governments in West Africa.

(d) analyse the constitutional developments and processes of colonial and post – independent government.

(e) appreciate the role of their country as a member of the international community.

WAEC GOVERNMENT 2022 Scheme of the Examinations

There will be two papers – Paper 1 and Paper 2, both of which must be taken. Papers 1 and 2 will be composite and will be taken at one sitting.

PAPER 1: This will consist of fifty multiple-choice objective questions drawn from the entire syllabus. Candidates will be required to answer all the questions in 1 hour for 40 marks.

PAPER 2: This will be a 2-hour essay type test consisting of two sections, Sections A and B as follows:

Section A: Elements of Government

Shall contain five questions out of which candidates shall be required to attempt any two.

Section B: Political and Constitutional Developments in West Africa and International Relations

Shall contain sets of five questions each; one set for one member country.  Each candidate is to answer two questions chosen from the set on the country in which he/she is taking the examination.

The paper shall carry 60 marks.

WAEC GOVERNMENT 2022 Section A: Elements of Government

Meaning and Scope of the Subject Matter – Government

  • Government as an institution of the state
  • Definition of state, features, structure and functions.
  • Government as a process or art or governing.
  • Government as an academic field of study – reasons for studying government.

WAEC GOVERNMENT 2022 Basic Concepts and Principles of Government

  • Basic concepts – State, *Society, *Nation, Power, Authority, Legitimacy, Sovereignty, Democracy, Political Culture and Socialization, Communalism, Feudalism and oligarchy, *Liberalism, Socialism, Communism, Capitalism, Fascism, Aristocracy, Totalitarianism.

Meaning and features.

  • Basic principles – Rule of Law, Fundamental Human Rights, Separation of  Powers/Checks and Balances, Constitutionalism, Political participation, Representative Government, Centralization and Decentralization – (Delegated Legislation, Devolution and Decentralization).

WAEC GOVERNMENT 2022 Constitutions

  • Definition and Sources
  • Functions
  • Types and Features, (Written and Unwritten, Rigid and Flexible).

WAEC GOVERNMENT 2022 Organs of Government

The Executive, the Legislature and the Judiciary – Judicial Independence. (Types, Structure, Composition/membership; Functions; powers and limitations).

WAEC GOVERNMENT 2022 State Structure and Characteristics of Government

  1. Types – Unitary, Federal, Confederal, Presidential or Non-parliamentary, Parliamentary or Cabinet, Monarchical and Republican.
  2. Meaning, types, features, merits and demerits.

WAEC GOVERNMENT 2022 Citizenship

Meaning, mode of acquisition, rights, duties and obligations of individuals in the state. Means of safeguarding rights of citizens.

WAEC GOVERNMENT 2022 Political Parties and Party Systems

  • Political Parties – definition, organization/structure, and functions.
  • Party Systems – definition, types, merits and demerits.

Pressure Groups, Public Opinion and Mass Media

  • Pressure Groups – definition, types,  mode of operation and functions;
  •  Public opinion – definition, formation, Measurement and importance;
  • Mass Media – definition, roles and impact.

WAEC GOVERNMENT 2022 The Electoral Systems, Processes and Electoral Management Body

  1. Electoral Systems and Processes
    • Election- Meaning and purpose of elections.
    • Franchise – meaning, and limitations.
    • Types, advantages and disadvantages of Electoral Systems.
  2. Electoral Management Body – definition, function, problems/constrains.

WAEC GOVERNMENT 2022 Public/Civil Service Administration

  • Public/Civil Service – Meaning, Structure, Characteristics and Functions.
  • Public/Civil Service Commission –meaning and Functions.
  • Public Corporations – definition, purposes, functions, control, challenges, need for commercialization and privatization.
  • Local Governments – Meaning, structure, Purposes, Functions, Sources of revenue, control and problems.

WAEC GOVERNMENT 2022 Section B: Political and Constitutional Developments in West Africa and International Relations


Pre-colonial Political System of Candidates Respective Countries

The Structural Organization of the following:

  • Nigeria          –   Hausa/Fulani, the Yoruba and the Igbo.
  • Ghana            –   The Akan and the Talensi.
  • Sierra Leone   –   The Mende and Temme.
  • The Gambia   –   The Wolof, Mandingo and Jola.
  • Liberia            –   The Vai and the Kru.

WAEC GOVERNMENT 2022 Colonial Administration

  • The Policy and Structure of the British Colonial Administration – Crown Colony, Protectorate and Indirect Rule.
  • The Policy of French Colonial Administration – Assimilation and Association (Loi Cadre).
  • Impact, Advantages and disadvantages of Colonial Rule.

Nationalism in Candidates respective Countries

  • Nationalism: Meaning, factors and effects.
  • Key Nationalist leaders/movements and their contributions.

WAEC GOVERNMENT 2022 Constitutional development in Candidates Respective Countries

(i)      Pre-Independence Constitutions –

  •   Nigeria (features)           –   Clifford 1922

                              Richards 1946

                              Macpherson 1951

                              Littleton 1954

  •   Ghana (features, merits and demerits)              –   Clifford 1916

                                     Guggisberg 1925

                                     Burns 1946

                                     Arden Clarke 1951

                                     Nkrumah  1954

  •   Sierra Leone (features, merits and demerits)    –   Slatter 1924

                                Stevenson 1947

                                 Beresford Stooke 1951                       The 1956 and 1958


            (d)   The Gambia (features, merits and demerits)      – The 1947, 1951,

                                                  1954, 1960, 1962 and 1963


(ii)       Post-Independence Constitutions – Features

(a) Nigeria – Independence Constitution, 1960

       Republican Constitution 1963

        The 1979 and 1989 Constitutions

1999 Constitution – Origin, features, strength and Weaknesses.

                 (b) Ghana       –     Independence Constitution, 1957

                                            Republican Constitution 1960

                                             2nd Republican Constitution 1969

                                             3rd Republican Constitution 1979

4th Republican Constitutions 1992.

                 (c) Sierra Leone – Independence Constitution 1961

                              Republican Constitution 1971

                              The 1978 and 1991 Constitutions,

(d)   The Gambia –   Independence Constitution  1965

                                Republican Constitution 1970.

2nd Republican Constitution 1997

 (e)     Liberia        –     Independence/Republican Constitution 1947

                                2nd Republican Constitution 1985

Development of Major Political Parties in the Candidate’s Respective Countries

  • Nigeria
  • Sierra Leone
  • The Gambia
  • Liberia

Formation, Objectives, Sources of Finance, Achievements and Failures

Military Rule in the Candidates’ Respective Countries

  •  Nigeria
  • Ghana;
  • Sierra Leone
  • The Gambia
  • Liberia

  Causes, effects and various military regimes.

WAEC GOVERNMENT 2022 Federal/Unitary Systems of Government in West Africa

  • Nigeria
  • Sierra Leone
  • The Gambia
  • Liberia

              Origin, Factors, Structure, Features and Problems

WAEC GOVERNMENT 2022 Foreign Policies of the Candidates’ Respective Countries

  • Nigeria
  • Ghana
  • Sierra Leone
  • The Gambia
  • Liberia

Definitions, Factors, objectives, advantages and disadvantages.

WAEC GOVERNMENT 2022 International Organizations


  • The United Nations Organizations (UNO),
  • The Commonwealth of Nations,
  • African Union (AU) – NEPAD,
  • The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).
  • Origin, aims/objectives, achievements and problems.

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