WAEC Government Answers 2023 For Thursday 8th June 2023

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Government 2 (Essay) – 09:30am – 11:30am
Government 1 (Objective) – 11:30am – 12:30pm


1,2,3,4,6,7,8 & 9 done.

(i) Legislative Function: The government, through the National Assembly (comprising the Senate and House of Representatives), is responsible for creating and passing laws that govern the nation. This function includes initiating, debating, amending, and enacting laws that promote order, justice, and the overall welfare of the citizens.

(ii) Executive Function: The government is responsible for implementing and enforcing laws and policies. The President, as the head of the executive branch, is tasked with executing and managing government programs and ensuring the smooth functioning of various government agencies and departments.


(iii) Judicial Function: The government provides a judicial system that ensures justice and the rule of law. It establishes courts and tribunals, appoints judges, and administers justice by interpreting and applying the law in resolving disputes, protecting rights, and punishing offenders.

(iv) Security and Defense: The government is responsible for safeguarding the nation’s security and defending it from internal and external threats. This includes maintaining law and order, protecting citizens’ lives and property, and ensuring national defense through military and security agencies.

(v) Economic Management: The government plays a crucial role in managing the economy. It formulates and implements economic policies, regulations, and frameworks to promote economic growth, stability, and development. This involves areas such as fiscal policy, monetary policy, trade policy, and investment promotion.

(vi) Social Welfare: The government is responsible for providing social welfare programs and services to enhance the well-being of its citizens. This includes initiatives in areas such as education, healthcare, housing, social security, poverty alleviation, and support for vulnerable populations.

(vii) Infrastructure Development: The government undertakes the task of developing and maintaining infrastructure, including transportation networks (roads, railways, airports, ports), energy systems, water supply, and communication networks. Infrastructure development is vital for economic growth, connectivity, and improving the quality of life for citizens.

(viii) Public Services: The government provides various public services to meet the needs of its citizens. This includes services such as public education, healthcare, transportation, utilities (water, electricity), public safety (police, fire services), waste management, and environmental protection.

(i) Insufficient Resources: Inadequate allocation of resources, including funding, infrastructure, and personnel, can severely impede the effective functioning of the justice system. Lack of resources can result in overcrowded courts, understaffed judicial bodies, and limited access to legal aid, undermining the system’s ability to deliver timely justice.

(ii) Corruption and Bribery: The presence of corruption and bribery within the justice system can erode public trust and confidence. When judges, lawyers, or court personnel are susceptible to external influences or engage in corrupt practices, it undermines the fairness and impartiality of the justice delivery system.

(iii) Lack of Access to Legal Services: Unequal access to legal services, particularly for marginalized and economically disadvantaged individuals, poses a significant challenge. Limited availability of legal aid, high legal costs, and inadequate representation can result in unequal access to justice, favoring those with greater resources.

(iv) Complexity and Lengthy Procedures: Complex and lengthy legal procedures can deter individuals from seeking justice. When legal processes are convoluted and time-consuming, it discourages people from pursuing their rights and can lead to frustration and a lack of faith in the justice system.

(v) Inadequate Judicial Training: The effectiveness of the justice delivery system relies on well-trained and competent judges and legal professionals. Insufficient training programs and professional development opportunities can hinder the system’s ability to interpret and apply laws effectively, impacting the quality of judgments and decisions.

(vi) Political Interference: Undue political influence on the justice system can compromise its independence and impartiality. When politicians interfere in judicial appointments, case proceedings, or verdicts, it undermines the integrity of the justice delivery system and erodes public trust.

(vii) Inadequate Alternative Dispute Resolution Mechanisms: A lack of accessible and efficient alternative dispute resolution mechanisms, such as mediation and arbitration, can burden the formal justice system. When people are unable to resolve their disputes through alternative means, it increases the caseload of the courts and contributes to delays in justice delivery.

(viii) Backlog of Cases: One of the significant challenges faced by the justice delivery system is the accumulation of a large number of pending cases. This backlog can lead to significant delays in the resolution of disputes, undermining the system’s efficiency and eroding public trust.

(i) Colonial Legacy: The colonial history of West Africa has left a lasting impact on the region’s governmental institutions. The arbitrary borders drawn by colonial powers often ignored ethnic and cultural divisions, leading to conflicts and challenges in governance.

(ii) Weak Governance Structures: Many West African states suffer from weak governance structures characterized by corruption, nepotism, and lack of accountability. These factors undermine the effectiveness and legitimacy of governmental institutions.

(iii) Economic Challenges: Persistent economic challenges, such as high poverty rates, unemployment, and limited access to basic services, have strained governmental institutions. Economic instability weakens the capacity of governments to deliver public goods and provide essential services.

(iv) Ethnic and Religious Divisions: Ethnic and religious divisions are prevalent in West Africa, and they often become sources of tension and conflicts. Governments struggle to manage these divisions effectively, leading to instability and weakened institutions.

(v) Political Instability and Coups: Many West African states have experienced political instability and frequent military coups. These disruptions undermine the continuity and effectiveness of governmental institutions, impeding long-term development.

(vi) Weak Rule of Law: The weak rule of law in West African states undermines the credibility and authority of governmental institutions. Lack of judicial independence, corruption, and impunity erode public trust and hinder institutional effectiveness.

(vii) External Interference: External interference, both from regional and international actors, has often hampered the functioning of governmental institutions in West Africa. Interference can range from political manipulation to resource exploitation, exacerbating internal challenges.

(viii) Security Threats: Persistent security threats, such as terrorism, organized crime, and insurgency, pose significant challenges to governmental institutions. These threats divert resources, create instability, and impede the functioning of state structures.

(i) Formation of Political Values and Beliefs: Political socialization helps individuals develop their political values and beliefs, which are essential for making informed political choices. Through family, education, media, and peer groups, individuals acquire knowledge about political systems, ideologies, and policies, enabling them to form opinions and make decisions in a democratic society.

(ii) Promotion of Political Awareness: Political socialization raises awareness about political issues, events, and processes. It exposes individuals to various sources of information, such as news, debates, and discussions, which helps them stay informed about political developments. This awareness enables citizens to actively engage in political debates, analyze different perspectives, and make informed decisions during elections and other democratic processes.

(iii) Encouragement of Active Citizenship: Political socialization encourages individuals to become active participants in the democratic process. By instilling a sense of civic duty, political socialization motivates citizens to vote, join political parties or interest groups, engage in public protests, and participate in community-based initiatives. Active citizenship is vital for a functioning democracy as it ensures that diverse voices and interests are represented and considered in decision-making processes.

(iv) Fostering Political Tolerance and Pluralism: Political socialization contributes to the development of political tolerance and respect for diverse viewpoints. Through exposure to different ideologies, cultures, and perspectives, individuals learn to appreciate and accept political diversity. This tolerance fosters open dialogue, compromise, and cooperation among citizens with differing opinions, which are fundamental for the functioning of a democratic society.

(v) Generation of Political Legitimacy: Political socialization helps establish political legitimacy by cultivating citizens’ trust and confidence in democratic institutions and processes. When individuals are socialized to understand the principles and values underlying democracy, they are more likely to accept and respect the outcomes of elections, abide by the rule of law, and actively engage in civic and political activities. This legitimacy strengthens the democratic system, enhances political stability, and facilitates effective governance.

(vi) Development of Political Identity: Political socialization helps individuals develop their political identity, which is crucial for their engagement in democratic processes. Through exposure to various socializing agents such as family, education, and media, individuals acquire a sense of belonging to a particular political ideology, party, or movement.

(vii) Transmission of Democratic Values: Political socialization plays a vital role in transmitting democratic values to individuals from an early age. Family, educational institutions, and social networks help instill values such as freedom, equality, fairness, and justice, which form the foundation of democratic principles.

(i)Understanding Identity and Belonging: Nationalism often revolves around a shared sense of identity, common history, language, culture, or territory. By studying nationalism, we gain insights into how individuals and groups define their sense of belonging and how it shapes their political aspirations.

(ii)Safeguarding Minority Rights: Nationalism can have both unifying and exclusionary tendencies. By studying nationalism, we can critically analyze its impact on minority rights. By understanding nationalist dynamics, policymakers can design inclusive policies and institutions that prevent the marginalization or discrimination of minority communities.

(iii)Managing Interethnic and Intercommunity Relations: Nationalist sentiments can have implications for interethnic and intercommunity relations within a state. It facilitates the development of policies and institutions that foster peaceful coexistence and intergroup harmony.

(iv)Shaping Democratic Institutions: Nationalist movements often advocate for political self-determination and the establishment of democratic systems. By studying nationalist activities, we gain insights into the demands, aspirations, and grievances of various groups within a society.

(v)Assessing Democratic Legitimacy: Nationalist movements can challenge existing political structures and call for greater autonomy or independence. By examining nationalist activities, we can assess the legitimacy and effectiveness of the democratic institutions in place.

(vi)Balancing National and Supranational Interests: In an increasingly interconnected world, the study of nationalism is essential for understanding the tensions between national interests and supranational frameworks, such as regional associations or international organizations.

(vii)Promoting Civic Engagement and Participation: Nationalist movements often mobilize citizens and foster a sense of collective agency. Studying nationalist activities can shed light on the mobilization strategies, participatory practices, and civic engagement methods employed by these movements.

Political leadership refers to the role and responsibilities of individuals who hold positions of authority and influence within the realm of politics. It encompasses the ability to lead, guide, and make decisions that shape the political landscape and governance of a country, region, or community.


Political leadership refers to the process and practice of guiding and influencing political processes and activities towards achieving specific goals within the realm of politics. It involves individuals who hold positions of authority or influence within political systems and who use their power to shape policies, make decisions, and mobilize support.

(i)Integrity: Good political leaders are honest, ethical, and demonstrate a strong sense of integrity. They act in the best interest of the public and uphold high moral and ethical standards.

(ii)Vision and Strategic Thinking: Effective political leaders have a clear vision for the future and are capable of strategic thinking. They can envision and articulate a compelling long-term direction for their country or community.

(iii)Strong Communication Skills: Good political leaders are excellent communicators. They can effectively convey their ideas, inspire others, and build consensus. They actively listen to diverse perspectives and engage in constructive dialogue.

(iv)Emotional Intelligence: Political leaders with emotional intelligence are aware of their own emotions and can manage them effectively. They also demonstrate empathy and understanding towards the needs and concerns of the people they serve.

(v)Leadership and Decision-Making: Good political leaders possess strong leadership skills. They have the ability to make informed and timely decisions, even in challenging or complex situations.

(vi)Problem-Solving and Innovation: Effective political leaders are adept at problem-solving. They can identify key issues and challenges, develop creative solutions, and take decisive action.

(vii)Resilience and Perseverance: Good political leaders exhibit resilience and perseverance in the face of adversity. They remain committed to their vision and goals, even when confronted with obstacles or setbacks.

(i)International Relations and Cooperation: Diplomacy is essential for Nigeria to engage with the international community and build relationships with other nations. Through diplomatic channels, Nigeria can negotiate treaties, establish trade and foster cooperation in areas such as security, development, and technology transfer.

(ii)Peace and Security: Diplomatic efforts are vital in promoting peace and security within Nigeria and the wider region. Diplomacy facilitates dialogue, negotiation, and conflict resolution between different ethnic groups, regions, and communities

(iii)Economic Development: Diplomacy plays a significant role in promoting Nigeria’s economic development. Diplomatic efforts can attract foreign investment, facilitate trade partnerships, and promote economic cooperation.

(iv)Development Cooperation: Diplomatic engagement enables Nigeria to access development assistance, grants, and loans from international organizations, bilateral partners, and multilateral institutions. These resources can support Nigeria’s development priorities, such as poverty reduction, healthcare, education etc

(v)Image and Reputation: Diplomacy plays a role in shaping Nigeria’s international image and reputation. Effective diplomatic communication and engagement can project a positive image of Nigeria, highlighting its cultural diversity, economic potential, and commitment to democratic governance.

(vi) Regional Leadership and Integration: Nigeria plays a crucial role in regional integration efforts in West Africa. Diplomatic initiatives, such as the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), provide a platform for cooperation, collective decision-making, and regional development.

(vii)Climate Change and Sustainable Development: Diplomacy is essential in addressing global challenges such as climate change and promoting sustainable development. Nigeria can engage in international climate negotiations, advocate for environmental protection, access climate finance, and collaborate with other countries to mitigate the impacts of climate change.

(i)Imposition of Colonial Rule: European powers, such as Britain, France, and Germany, imposed direct colonial rule over various West African territories during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. This resulted in the loss of sovereignty and political independence for the indigenous states and societies.

(ii)Administrative Reorganization: Colonial powers reorganized the political and administrative structures of West African territories to suit their interests. They established centralized bureaucratic systems, replacing or co-opting existing traditional systems of governance.

(iii)Creation of Artificial Boundaries: Colonial powers drew arbitrary boundaries without considering the ethnic, cultural, or historical realities of the region. This resulted in the division of ethnic groups and communities across multiple colonies, leading to fragmented and diverse political landscapes.

(iv)Emergence of Nationalist Movements: The experience of colonial rule and the denial of political rights and self-determination fueled the growth of nationalist movements. These movements sought to challenge colonial domination and fought for independence and self-governance.

(v)Political Education and Awareness: The colonial period witnessed the emergence of educated elites who received Western-style education and were exposed to political ideas such as nationalism, self-determination, and democracy.

(vi)Transition to Statehood: The political impacts of colonial administration laid the groundwork for the eventual transition to statehood. Through nationalist struggles and diplomatic negotiations, West African territories gained independence from colonial rule.

(vi)Legacy of Colonial Borders and Divisions: The artificial borders established by colonial powers have had lasting impacts on the political dynamics in West Africa. Post-colonial states have had to grapple with issues of ethnic diversity, boundary disputes, and the legacy of colonial rule, which continue to shape political realities in the region.

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