WAEC Practical And Physical Geography Questions and Answers 2023


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Geography 3 (Practical and Physical Geography) 3:00pm – 4:50pm


(i) Rugged topography
(ii) Absence of surface drainage
(iii) Depression of varying sizes an d depths
(iv) Cliffs
(v) Karst springs
(vi) Tower karsts
(vii) Limestone pavements

(i) Cave systems
(ii) Underground Lakes and Springs
(iii) Sinkholes
(iv) Stalactites and stalagmites
(v) Tunnel systems
(vi) Underground waterfalls


(i) Rich in Mineral Resources: Limestone regions are often abundant in mineral resources. Limestone itself is a valuable rock used in construction, agriculture, and industry. Limestone regions may contain deposits of other minerals such as coal, iron, zinc, and phosphates, which contribute to economic development.

(ii) Fertile Soil: Limestone weathering over time produces fertile soil with high calcium carbonate content. This type of soil is ideal for agriculture, as it provides essential nutrients and helps maintain soil pH levels. Limestone regions often support productive farmland and vibrant ecosystems.

(iii) Water Storage and Supply: Limestone is highly permeable, allowing water to pass through and form underground aquifers. These aquifers act as natural reservoirs, storing water and ensuring a reliable water supply in limestone regions. The porous nature of limestone also facilitates groundwater recharge and reduces surface water runoff, contributing to sustainable water management.

(iv) Scientific exploration: Limestone regions are known for their unique karst landscapes, characterized by sinkholes, underground rivers, and caves. These features provide opportunities for scientific exploration and serves as natural habitats for specialized flora and fauna.

(v) Flood mitigation: Karst systems which is limestone regions are characterised by, can help regulate water flow and mitigate flooding by absorbing excess water during heavy rainfall.

(vi) Tourism and Recreation: Limestone regions often attract tourists due to their scenic beauty and unique geological formations. Caves, cliffs, and underground rivers offer opportunities for activities like cave exploration, rock climbing, hiking, and boating.

(vii) Employment opportunites: Tourism in limestone regions can stimulate local economies, create jobs, and foster environmental awareness and conservation efforts.

(viii) Building Material: Limestone has been used as a building material for centuries. Its durability, aesthetic appeal, and availability make it a preferred choice for constructing structures, monuments, and architectural landmarks. Limestone regions often have an abundant supply of this versatile rock, making it easily accessible for construction purposes.

Climate refers to the long-term average weather conditions of a particular region or area. It is determined by various factors such as temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind patterns, and atmospheric pressure, which persist over a significant period, typically for several decades or more.


Climate can be described as the long-term atmospheric conditions, including temperature, precipitation, wind, and humidity, that are characteristic of a specific region or area. It represents the average weather patterns observed over an extended period, typically spanning decades or more.


Climate refers to the long-term average weather patterns observed in a particular region or on a global scale.

(i) Solar radiation
(ii) Atmospheric composition
(iii) Ocean currents
(iv) Land and water distribution
(v) Altitude and topography
(vi) Greenhouse gases
(vii) Aerosols
(viii) Earth’s orbit and axial tilt
(ix) Volcanic activity
(x) Human activities

(i) High Temperature: Equatorial regions experience consistently high temperatures throughout the year. Average temperatures range between 25 to 30 degrees Celsius (77 to 86 degrees Fahrenheit). There is minimal seasonal variation in temperature, and it remains relatively constant year-round.

(ii) High Precipitation: Equatorial regions receive abundant rainfall, resulting in a high level of precipitation. Rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year, with no distinct dry season.

(iii) High Humidity: Equatorial climates are characterized by high humidity levels. The combination of high temperatures and abundant rainfall leads to a significant amount of moisture in the air. Relative humidity often exceeds 80%, creating a warm and moist environment.

(iv) Dense Vegetation: The equatorial climate fosters the growth of lush and diverse vegetation, including tropical rainforests. The consistent warmth, ample rainfall, and high humidity provide ideal conditions for the growth of a wide variety of plant species. The dense vegetation contributes to the rich biodiversity found in equatorial regions.

(v) High Evaporation and transpiration: Due to the high temperatures and abundant moisture, equatorial regions experience significant evapotranspiration. Evapotranspiration refers to the combined process of water evaporation from the surface and transpiration from plants. The warm climate and ample water supply promote this process, leading to high levels of water vapor in the atmosphere.

(vi) Low Pressure and Convectional Rainfall: Equatorial climates are characterized by low atmospheric pressure. The intense solar radiation at the equator causes air to rise rapidly, leading to the formation of low-pressure areas. As the warm air ascends, it cools and condenses, resulting in heavy convectional rainfall.

Weathering is defined as the gradual breaking down or disintegration of rocks by either physical (mechanical) or chemical process. It is a fundamental geologic process that plays a significant role in shaping the Earth’s landscape over long periods of time.


Weathering is the process by which rocks, minerals, and other geological materials are broken down or altered near the Earth’s surface.Weathering is a critical component in understanding the formation of landforms and the development of landscapes.

Frost action: This occurs in polar and temperate regions of the world where rocks on high mountains with cracks or joints collect water or snow in them . When the temperature drops during the night or winter, the water in the cracks freezes and melts during the day or summer. Such repeated freezing and melting widen and deepen the cracks which eventually break-down the rock.

Exfoliation: Exfoliation is a geological process that occurs as a result of mechanical weathering, which involves the physical breakdown of rocks into smaller fragments without changing their chemical composition. mechanism behind exfoliation involves the expansion and contraction of rocks in response to temperature changes.

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WAEC Practical And Physical Geography Questions and Answers 2023


The WAEC Practical and Physical Geography exam is designed to assess students’ practical skills and knowledge in the field of geography. It consists of two sections: the practical geography section, which focuses on map reading and interpretation, and the physical geography section, which covers various topics related to the Earth’s physical features, landforms, and natural phenomena. This article will provide valuable tips and insights to help you excel in both sections of the WAEC Geography exam in 2023.

Importance of Practical and Physical Geography in the WAEC Exam

Practical and physical geography are integral components of the WAEC exam as they test students’ ability to apply theoretical knowledge to real-world scenarios. Practical geography evaluates students’ map reading, sketching, and interpretation skills, which are crucial for understanding geographic information and making informed decisions. On the other hand, the physical geography section assesses students’ understanding of natural processes, landforms, climate patterns, and environmental issues, providing a holistic view of the Earth’s physical environment.

Understanding the Practical Geography Section

Overview of Practical Geography

The practical geography section of the WAEC exam focuses on testing students’ ability to interpret and analyze geographic information presented through maps, diagrams, graphs, or photographs. It assesses their skills in reading and understanding various elements on a map, such as symbols, scales, direction, and topographic features.

Types of Practical Geography Questions

The practical geography section may include questions that require students to:

  1. Identify and label specific features on a map or diagram.
  2. Calculate distances or measure areas using the given scale.
  3. Interpret climate graphs, population pyramids, or other graphical representations.
  4. Analyze and compare data presented in tabular form.
  5. Draw and sketch landforms or geographical features based on given descriptions.

Tips for Answering Practical Geography Questions

To excel in the practical geography section, consider the following tips:

  1. Familiarize Yourself with Map Reading and Interpretation: Practice reading and interpreting different types of maps regularly. Familiarize yourself with various map symbols, scale representation, and direction indicators. This will enhance your understanding of the information presented on the maps.
  2. Practice Drawing and Sketching Skills: Develop your ability to draw accurate and proportionate sketches of landforms or geographic features. Practice sketching common landforms such as rivers, mountains, and valleys, paying attention to the relative sizes and shapes.
  3. Pay Attention to Scale and Direction: When answering practical geography questions, always refer to the map’s scale to calculate distances accurately. Also, pay attention to compass directions to interpret the relationships between different features on the map.
  4. Use Proper Symbols and Legends: Ensure that you understand the meaning of different map symbols and legends. Use the appropriate symbols when labeling or representing geographical features.

Understanding the Physical Geography Section

Overview of Physical Geography

The physical geography section of the WAEC exam covers a wide range of topics related to the Earth’s physical features, landforms, climate patterns, and natural processes. It aims to assess students’ understanding of the physical environment and their ability to explain the interactions between various elements on Earth.

Topics Covered in the Physical Geography Section

The physical geography section may include topics such as:

  1. Weather and Climate: Understanding atmospheric phenomena, climate zones, and weather patterns.
  2. Landforms and Biomes: Exploring various landforms, including mountains, plateaus, plains, and the characteristics of different biomes.
  3. Natural Hazards: Examining natural disasters such as earthquakes, volcanoes, hurricanes, and floods, including their causes and impacts.
  4. Ecosystems and Environmental Issues: Studying ecosystems, biodiversity, human impacts on the environment, and sustainable development.

Preparation Tips for the Physical Geography Section

To prepare for the physical geography section, consider the following tips:

  1. Review Key Concepts and Definitions: Ensure you have a solid understanding of fundamental geography concepts, such as weather, climate, erosion, tectonic processes, and ecosystem dynamics. Review definitions and be able to explain these concepts in your own words.
  2. Understand Natural Phenomena and Processes: Study the causes and effects of natural phenomena like earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and climate change. Familiarize yourself with the underlying processes and the global implications of these events.
  3. Study Landforms and Biomes: Learn about different landforms, their formation processes, and the distinctive features associated with each. Similarly, explore the characteristics of major biomes and their distribution patterns worldwide.
  4. Practice Diagrams and Graph Interpretation: Review diagrams, graphs, and data related to various physical geography topics. Practice interpreting the information presented in these visual representations and drawing meaningful conclusions from them.

Time Management and Exam Strategies

To manage your time effectively and perform well in the exam, consider the following strategies:

  1. Allocate Sufficient Time for Each Section: Divide your time based on the number of questions and marks allocated for the practical geography and physical geography sections. Ensure you have enough time to answer all questions adequately.
  2. Read Questions Carefully and Understand Requirements: Take your time to read each question carefully. Pay attention to the specific requirements and what is being asked. Highlight key terms or instructions to ensure your answers address the question appropriately.
  3. Manage Your Time Effectively: If you encounter a challenging question, don’t spend too much time on it. Move on to the next question and return to it later if time allows. Prioritize questions you are more confident about to maximize your score.

Recommended Resources for Exam Preparation

To enhance your preparation for the WAEC Geography exam, consider the following resources:

  1. Geography Textbooks: Refer to your school’s prescribed geography textbook. Read relevant chapters, review concepts, and take note of important details and definitions.
  2. Practice Books and Past Questions: Obtain practice books or past question papers specifically designed for the WAEC Geography exam. Practice answering a variety of questions to familiarize yourself with the exam format and improve your time management skills.
  3. Online Resources and Interactive Maps: Explore reputable online resources that provide study materials, interactive maps, and quizzes related to practical and physical geography. These resources can enhance your understanding of geographic concepts and provide visual aids for better comprehension.


Preparing for the WAEC Practical and Physical Geography exam requires a combination of theoretical knowledge and practical skills. Understanding map reading and interpretation techniques, reviewing key physical geography topics, and managing your time effectively are crucial for success. By following the outlined tips and utilizing recommended resources, you can confidently approach the exam and achieve excellent results.


Q: How should I prepare for the practical geography section? A: To prepare for the practical geography section, practice reading and interpreting different types of maps, familiarize yourself with map symbols and scales, develop sketching skills for drawing landforms, and practice analyzing data presented in graphical forms.

Q: Are there any specific physical geography topics that I should focus on? A: It is essential to cover all the physical geography topics mentioned in your syllabus. However, topics such as weather and climate, landforms and biomes, natural hazards, and ecosystems are frequently covered in the exam and should receive extra attention during your preparation.

Q: Can I use a ruler or protractor during the practical geography section? A: It is advisable to check the exam guidelines and instructions provided by the examination board. Some exams may allow the use of specific measuring tools, while others may require you to make measurements without additional aids.

Q: How can I improve my map reading and interpretation skills? A: Improve your map reading and interpretation skills by regularly practicing with different types of maps, understanding map symbols and scales, and familiarizing yourself with common geographic features. Additionally, seeking guidance from teachers or using online resources can help enhance your skills.

Q: Are there any common mistakes to avoid in the physical geography section? A: Common mistakes include misinterpreting diagrams or graphs, not answering according to the question’s requirements, neglecting to provide specific examples or explanations, and not using appropriate geographical terminology. Ensure you read questions carefully and answer them accurately to avoid these mistakes.

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