NECO Civic Education 2023 Answers For 20th July 2023


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Neco Questions and Answers 2023

Neco Questions and Answers 2023

NECO Civic Education 2023 answers

Civic Education (Objective & Essay)
10:00am – 1:00pm



PLEASE NOTE: You are to answer total of FOUR questions in all.
TWO questions from each section.
Section A (1 – 4)
Section B (5 – 8)
We solved all – BEND-DOWN SELECT

(Answer Only TWO Questions From This Section)

Stigmatization refers to the act of unfairly and negatively labeling or treating individuals or groups based on certain characteristics, traits, or conditions. It involves attaching a social disgrace or shame to those who possess a particular attribute, making them feel marginalized, discriminated against, or excluded from society.

(i) Social Stigmatization: This type of stigmatization occurs when individuals living with HIV/AIDS experience discrimination, rejection, or isolation from their families, friends, or communities due to their health status. People may fear transmission of the virus and distance themselves from those living with HIV/AIDS.

(ii) Self Stigmatization: Self-stigma refers to the internalization of negative beliefs and attitudes by individuals living with HIV/AIDS. They may experience feelings of shame, guilt, and low self-esteem, leading to reluctance in seeking healthcare or support due to perceived judgment from others

(iii) Institutional Stigmatization: Institutional stigmatization occurs when healthcare facilities, educational institutions, or workplaces discriminate against people living with HIV/AIDS. This may manifest in denial of access to services, confidentiality breaches, or unjust treatment based on their health status.

(iv) Verbal Stigmatization: Individuals with HIV/AIDS may experience verbal abuse, insults, or derogatory language from others, leading to emotional distress and a sense of unworthiness.

(i) Comprehensive Education and Awareness: Implement comprehensive education and awareness programs about HIV/AIDS in schools, communities, and workplaces. Accurate information dissemination can dispel myths, reduce fear, and combat stigmatizing attitudes.

(ii) Promotion of Non-Discriminatory Policies: Advocate for and enforce non-discriminatory policies in healthcare settings, workplaces, and public institutions. These policies should protect the rights and confidentiality of people living with HIV/AIDS.

(iii) Media Campaigns and Advocacy: Utilize media campaigns and advocacy initiatives to challenge stigmatizing language and stereotypes related to HIV/AIDS. Encourage positive portrayals of individuals living with the virus.

(iv) Access to Confidential Testing and Treatment: Ensure access to confidential HIV testing and treatment services to encourage early detection and prevent the fear of stigma as a barrier to seeking healthcare.

(v) Involvement of People Living with HIV/AIDS: Involve people living with HIV/AIDS in awareness campaigns and advocacy efforts. Their firsthand experiences can be powerful in challenging stigmatization and fostering understanding.

(vi) Counseling and Support Services: Establish counseling and support services for people living with HIV/AIDS and their families. These services can provide emotional support, reduce self-stigma, and promote adherence to treatment.

A representative government is a type of government in which people exercise their political sovereignty by directly electing their representatives in an election periodically to make decisions and enact laws on their behalf. In a representative democracy, the elected officials represent the interests and preferences of the people and are accountable to the electorate. The system allows citizens to participate in the political process by voting for their preferred candidates during elections, giving them a voice in the decision-making process without directly participating in every legislative matter.

(i) Existence and application of Rule of Law
(ii) A constitution that will guarantee the democratic ideals must be there.
(iii) Press freedom; the existence of free press is not negotiable.
(iv) Periodic and organized elections to confer legitimacy on the system.
(v) Existence of an independent judiciary.
(vi) An independent electoral commission
(vii) Universal adult suffrage.
(viii) Protection of Minority Rights
(ix) Separation of powers

(i) Direct democracy is a system where citizens vote directly on laws and policies while Indirect democracy is a system where citizens elect representatives to vote on laws and policies on their behalf.
(ii) In a direct democracy, the people directly participate in decision-making, typically by voting on laws and policies. In an indirect democracy, the people elect representatives to make decisions on their behalf.
(iii) In a direct democracy, decisions can be made quickly, since the people are directly involved in the process. In an indirect democracy, decisions can take longer to be made, as they must be made by the representatives who have been elected by the people
(iv) Direct democracy relies on citizens’ collective knowledge and participation while Indirect democracy relies on the expertise and knowledge of elected representatives to make decisions.
(v) Direct democracy can be more difficult to implement on a large scale as it requires high levels of participation from citizens. In contrast, indirect democracy is more practical for larger societies
(vi) Direct democracy often involves the use of referendums and initiatives, where citizens can propose, approve, or reject specific laws or constitutional amendments WHILE indirect democracies may use referendums and initiatives on specific issues, the majority of decisions are made by elected representatives in legislative bodies.

Rule of law is the mechanism, process, institution, practice, or norm that supports the equality of all citizens before the law, secures a nonarbitrary form of government, and more generally prevents the arbitrary use of power.
It refers to the principle that all individuals, including government officials, are subject to and must abide by the laws of the land. It upholds the idea that laws should be fair, just, and transparent, applied consistently to everyone, and enforced without discrimination. The rule of law ensures that no one is above the law and that all citizens have equal protection of their rights and freedoms.

(i) Protection of Individual Rights: The rule of law guarantees the protection of individual rights and freedoms, such as freedom of speech, assembly, and expression. It safeguards citizens from arbitrary actions by the government and ensures that their rights are respected.

(ii) Stability and Predictability: A society governed by the rule of law is more stable and predictable. When laws are consistently applied and enforced, individuals and businesses can make informed decisions and plan for the future with confidence.

(iii) Promotion of Justice and Fairness: The rule of law fosters a system of justice and fairness. It ensures that disputes are resolved impartially through a legal process, promoting trust in the judicial system and discouraging vigilante justice.

(iv) Prevention of Abuse of Power: By placing limits on government authority and holding public officials accountable for their actions, the rule of law prevents the abuse of power. This helps maintain a check and balance system that safeguards against tyranny and corruption.

(v) Economic Development: A strong rule of law is crucial for economic development. It provides a conducive environment for business investments, protects property rights, and enforces contracts, attracting both domestic and foreign investments.

(vi) Social Cohesion and Trust: A society governed by the rule of law fosters social cohesion and trust among its citizens. When people believe that laws are just and equally applied, it enhances a sense of unity and mutual respect.

(i) Independent Judiciary: To safeguard the rule of law, it is essential to maintain an independent and impartial judiciary. Ensuring that judges are free from political influence and can make decisions based on the law and evidence strengthens the rule of law.

(ii) Public Awareness and Education: Civic education and public awareness campaigns play a crucial role in safeguarding the rule of law. Educating citizens about their rights, the importance of the rule of law, and the role of institutions in upholding it helps promote a law-abiding society.

(iii) Strong Legal Framework: Implementing a robust legal framework that is fair, comprehensive, and upholds fundamental rights is vital for safeguarding the rule of law. Regular review and update of laws to reflect changing societal needs are also necessary.

(iv) Transparent and Accountable Governance: Transparency and accountability in government institutions and public services are essential for upholding the rule of law. Ensuring that government actions are open to scrutiny and that officials are held accountable for their decisions strengthens trust in the legal system.

Civic Education is a branch of education that aims to foster the knowledge, skills, and values necessary for active and responsible citizenship in a democratic society. It involves teaching students about their rights, duties, and responsibilities as citizens, as well as providing them with an understanding of democratic principles, governance, and social participation.

(i) Informed and Active Citizenship: Civic education equips individuals with the knowledge and understanding of how their government works, enabling them to make informed decisions and actively participate in the democratic process. Informed citizens are more likely to engage in voting, advocacy, and community development.

(ii) Promoting Social Cohesion: Civic education emphasizes the values of tolerance, respect for diversity, and empathy for others. By learning about the rights and perspectives of different groups, students are more likely to foster a sense of social cohesion and work towards building inclusive communities.

(iii) Responsible and Ethical Behavior: Civic education instills a sense of responsibility and ethical behavior in citizens. Students learn about the importance of honesty, integrity, and respecting the rule of law, which contributes to the development of a law-abiding and just society.

(iv) Critical Thinking and Problem-Solving: Civic education encourages critical thinking and analytical skills. It teaches students to examine societal issues, assess multiple viewpoints, and find solutions to complex problems, preparing them to be active problem-solvers in their communities.

(v) Promoting Peaceful Conflict Resolution: Understanding democratic principles and civic engagement enables individuals to resolve conflicts peacefully through dialogue and negotiation. Civic education helps develop skills for constructive dialogue, fostering a culture of peaceful coexistence.

(vi) Protection of Human Rights: Civic education highlights the importance of human rights and encourages citizens to advocate for the protection of these rights. It empowers individuals to stand against injustice and work towards a fair and equitable society.

(vii) Participation in Community Development: Civic education emphasizes the role of citizens in community development and nation-building. It inspires students to take initiative and actively participate in projects that address societal needs, promoting social responsibility.

(Answer Only TWO Question From This Section)

Orderliness refers to the quality or state of being well-organized, disciplined, and respectful of rules and regulations within the society. It emphasizes the importance of following established procedures, maintaining a structured environment, and upholding the principles of good governance. Civic education aims to instill in students a sense of responsibility and active citizenship, encouraging them to contribute positively to their communities by promoting orderliness in various aspects of their lives.

(i) Respecting Traffic Rules: Civic education emphasizes the importance of obeying traffic rules and regulations on the roads. Students learn the significance of using pedestrian crossings, obeying traffic lights, and driving responsibly. Orderly behavior on the roads ensures the safety of all road users.

(ii) Maintaining Cleanliness: Orderliness extends to keeping public spaces, such as classrooms, parks, and streets, clean and well-maintained. Civic education teaches students the importance of proper waste disposal and taking care of shared spaces for the benefit of the entire community.

(iii) Following School Rules: In educational institutions, orderliness is encouraged by adhering to school rules and regulations. This includes punctuality, wearing uniforms, and respecting the authority of teachers and administrators.

(iv) Voting Responsibly: Civic education educates students about the electoral process and the importance of participating in elections. An orderly democracy relies on citizens making informed decisions and casting their votes responsibly.

(v) Being Respectful of Diversity: Promoting orderliness in society involves fostering an inclusive and respectful environment where individuals from diverse backgrounds coexist harmoniously. Civic education encourages students to embrace diversity and treat others with respect and empathy.

(vi) Practicing Responsible Citizenship: Orderliness in civic education goes beyond individual actions and includes responsible citizenship. This involves actively participating in community development projects, volunteering, and engaging in activities that promote the common good.

(i) Reduced Unemployment: Youth empowerment equips young individuals with relevant skills and knowledge, making them more employable in various sectors of the economy. As more young people gain employment or create their businesses, the overall unemployment rate in the country decreases.

(ii) Economic Growth and Innovation: Empowered youth are more likely to engage in entrepreneurial activities and start new ventures. These initiatives can lead to innovation, increased productivity, and economic growth, contributing to Nigeria’s economic development.

(iii) Poverty Alleviation: With increased access to skill development and entrepreneurship training, young people can generate income and lift themselves and their families out of poverty. Empowering youth to become financially independent helps reduce poverty levels in the country.

(iv) Social Stability: When young people have access to skill development and meaningful employment opportunities, they are less likely to engage in criminal activities or participate in social unrest. Youth empowerment fosters social stability and harmony within communities.

(v) Human Capital Development: Investing in youth empowerment skills enhances the country’s human capital. A skilled and knowledgeable young population can contribute to the country’s productivity and competitiveness in the global market.

(vi) Youth Participation in Decision-Making: Empowered youth are more likely to participate in civic and political activities. They become active citizens who engage in community development, advocate for their rights, and contribute to policy formulation and implementation.

(vii) Technology Advancement and Digitalization: Equipping Nigerian youth with digital and technological skills empowers them to leverage technology for various purposes, including education, entrepreneurship, and communication. This can drive technological advancements and digitalization across different sectors of the economy.

(i) National Curriculum: Having a standardized national curriculum helps ensure that students across different regions of Nigeria are taught similar subjects, topics, and values. This fosters a sense of shared identity and purpose among students from diverse backgrounds.

(ii) Inclusive Education Policies: Implementing inclusive education policies that accommodate students with diverse abilities, backgrounds, and learning styles fosters an environment of acceptance and understanding. When students from various backgrounds learn together, it promotes unity and breaks down barriers.

(iii) Multilingual Education: Nigeria is linguistically diverse, with hundreds of languages spoken across the country. Promoting multilingual education by teaching indigenous languages alongside the official languages (English and others) helps preserve cultural heritage and encourages respect for different linguistic groups.

(iv) National Integration Programs: The Nigerian education system can implement national integration programs that bring students from different states and regions together for cultural exchanges, sports events, and academic competitions. These initiatives help students interact, learn about each other’s cultures, and build friendships.

(v) Civic Education: Incorporating civic education in the curriculum helps students understand their rights, responsibilities, and duties as Nigerian citizens. It promotes patriotism, national consciousness, and a sense of ownership in building a strong and united nation.

(vi) Teacher Training and Sensitization: Providing teachers with training on multicultural education and sensitivity can equip them to create inclusive classrooms where diversity is celebrated and respected. Teachers play a crucial role in nurturing a sense of national unity among students.

(vii) National Symbols and Celebrations: Celebrating national holidays, displaying national symbols, and promoting national anthem singing in schools instills a sense of pride and belonging to the nation. These activities emphasize common values and shared history.

A Constitution is a fundamental and supreme body of laws that serves as the foundation for a country’s governance and legal system. It outlines the structure of the government, defines the rights and responsibilities of citizens, and sets the framework for the functioning of various institutions. Constitutions can be written or unwritten and are designed to ensure stability, order, and protection of citizens’ rights and freedoms.

(i) Federalism: The 1999 Constitution establishes Nigeria as a federal republic comprising 36 states and one Federal Capital Territory (FCT). It distributes powers between the central (federal) government and the state governments, delineating their respective spheres of authority. Certain matters, such as defense, foreign affairs, and currency, are within the exclusive purview of the federal government, while other issues, like education and health, fall under the states’ jurisdiction.

(ii) Separation of Powers: The Constitution adheres to the principle of separation of powers, creating three distinct branches of government: the Executive, the Legislature, and the Judiciary. Each branch has specific functions and responsibilities to prevent any one branch from becoming too powerful. This system ensures a system of checks and balances, enhancing accountability and preventing abuses of power.

(iii) Fundamental Human Rights: The 1999 Constitution includes a chapter on Fundamental Human Rights, which guarantees various rights and freedoms to Nigerian citizens. These rights encompass civil, political, economic, social, and cultural aspects. Some of the rights protected include the right to life, freedom of speech and expression, right to education, and protection from discrimination. Citizens can seek redress through the courts if their rights are violated.

(iv) Bicameral Legislature: The Nigerian National Assembly, which is the country’s legislative body, consists of two chambers: the Senate and the House of Representatives. The bicameral system allows for more comprehensive deliberations on proposed legislation and ensures representation for various groups and regions within the country. The Senate represents the states, with each state having three senators, while the House of Representatives represents constituencies based on population.

(v) Executive Powers: The President of Nigeria is the head of state, head of government, and the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces. The President is elected through a popular vote and can serve a maximum of two four-year terms. The President is responsible for executing and implementing the laws, formulating policies, and appointing members of the federal executive council.

(vi) Judicial Independence: The Constitution establishes an independent judiciary in Nigeria. The judiciary has the power of judicial review, allowing it to interpret the Constitution and declare laws and actions of the government unconstitutional if they violate its provisions. This independence is essential for upholding the rule of law and protecting the rights of citizens.

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(i) Civic education equips individuals with the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to become active and informed citizens.

(ii) Civic education is vital for the functioning and strengthening of democratic systems. It helps individuals understand the importance of democratic values.

(iii) Civic education promotes social cohesion by fostering a sense of shared identity, values, and goals within a diverse society.

(iv) Civic education encourages individuals to actively engage in their communities and take responsibility for addressing social issues.

(v) Civic education instills values such as respect, tolerance, integrity, and social responsibility. It helps individuals develop an ethical framework that guides their behavior and decision-making.

(vi) Civic education prepares individuals to be active participants in the global community. It promotes understanding of global issues, cultural diversity, and interdependence.

(vii) Civic education equips individuals with a global perspective, enabling them to understand global challenges, interconnections, and their responsibilities as global citizens.

(viii) Civic education emphasizes the value of diversity, promoting respect for different cultures, beliefs, and identities. It encourages dialogue, understanding, and appreciation of diverse perspectives.

(i) Fostering Civic Knowledge and Understanding: Citizenship education equips individuals with knowledge and understanding of their country’s history, political systems, institutions, and cultural heritage.

(ii) Developing Civic Skills and Competencies: Citizenship education cultivates essential civic skills and competencies, such as critical thinking, problem-solving, effective communication, and collaboration.

(iii) Promoting Active Citizenship and Civic Engagement: Citizenship education encourages active participation in civic and community affairs. It promotes a sense of responsibility and empowers individuals

(iv) Instilling Values and Ethical Behavior: Citizenship education helps instill values such as respect, tolerance, empathy, and integrity. These values promote social cohesion, cooperation, and ethical behavior among citizens.

(v) Cultivating National Identity and Unity: Citizenship education plays a vital role in cultivating a sense of national identity and unity. It helps citizens develop a shared understanding of their nation’s heritage, symbols, traditions, and aspirations.

(vi) Enhancing Democratic Participation: Citizenship education is closely linked to democratic participation. It educates individuals about their rights, responsibilities, and the importance of participating in democratic processes, such as voting etc

(vii) Building Social Cohesion and Understanding: Citizenship education promotes social cohesion by encouraging citizens to appreciate and embrace the diversity within their nation.It emphasizes the importance of understanding and respecting different cultures, religions, and perspectives.

Inter-communal relationship can be defined as interactions, connections, and dynamics between different communities or groups of people within a specific geographical area.


Inter-communal relationships refer to the interactions, connections, and bonds between different communities or ethnic groups within a specific geographical area.

Inter-communal relationships refer to connections and interactions between different communities or groups within a society.


Inter-communal relationships refer to the interactions and connections,between different communities or groups within a larger society.

(i) Cultural Exchange: Inter-communal relationships facilitate cultural exchange, allowing communities to learn from one another’s traditions, customs, and practices. This promotes cultural diversity, appreciation, and inclusivity, which are essential for community development and nation-building.

(ii) Social Integration: Inter-communal relationships encourage social integration by bringing people from different communities together. This creates mutual understanding, tolerance, and empathy among individuals, leading to harmonious coexistence and collective progress.

(iii) Knowledge Sharing: Inter-communal relationships create opportunities for the sharing of knowledge, experiences, and expertise. Communities can learn from each other’s successes, challenges, and innovative approaches to address common issues such as healthcare, education, infrastructure, and agriculture.

(iv) Economic Cooperation: Collaborative economic initiatives between communities foster growth and development. Inter-communal trade, investment, and entrepreneurship create job opportunities, boost local economies, and contribute to poverty reduction and increased standard of living.

(v) Infrastructure Development: Inter-communal relationships can lead to joint efforts in infrastructure development. Communities can pool resources, share costs, and work together to build roads, bridges, schools, hospitals, and other essential facilities that benefit multiple communities.

(vi) Conflict Resolution: Inter-communal relationships provide a platform for peaceful dialogue and conflict resolution. By promoting dialogue, understanding, and mediation, communities can resolve conflicts, reduce tensions, and prevent violence, fostering stability and development.

(vii) Environmental Conservation: Collaborative efforts among communities promote environmental conservation. Sharing knowledge and resources enables communities to address environmental challenges, protect natural resources, and implement sustainable practices for the benefit of all.

(viii) Political Engagement: Inter-communal relationships encourage active participation in political processes. When communities engage in dialogue and collaboration, they can collectively address issues, advocate for their needs, and influence policies that promote community development and social justice.

(i) National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA)
(ii) National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC)
(iii) Nigeria Police Force (NPF)
(iv) Nigerian Customs Service (NCS)
(v) Department of State Services (DSS)
(vi) Nigerian Security and Civil Defence Corps

(i) Failure to follow medical advice can lead to the progression or worsening of the underlying medical condition.

(ii) Non-adherence can render the prescribed treatment ineffective, leading to inadequate symptom control or disease management.

(iii) Ignoring medical advice can increase the risk of complications and secondary infections. This can prolong the recovery process, worsen symptoms, and even lead to life-threatening situations.

(iv) Non-adherence to preventive measures, such as vaccination or isolation protocols for contagious diseases, can facilitate the spread of infections within the community.

(v) Non-adherence can lead to prolonged illness or the need for more intensive medical interventions, which can result in increased healthcare costs for individuals and society as a whole.

(vi) Inappropriate use or premature discontinuation of antibiotics can contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance.

(vii) When patients consistently disregard medical advice, it can reduce trust in healthcare professionals and the healthcare system overall.

(viii) Non-adherence to public health recommendations, such as social distancing or wearing masks during a pandemic, can undermine efforts to control the spread of diseases.

(i)Violence and Criminal Activities: Cultism often involves the use of violence, intimidation, and criminal activities such as robbery, kidnapping, drug trafficking, and extortion.

(ii)Loss of Lives and Property: Cult clashes and rivalries can result in frequent clashes between different cult groups, leading to loss of lives and destruction of property.

(iii)Breakdown of Law and Order: Cultism undermines the rule of law by creating a parallel system of authority and justice.

(iv)Social Instability: Cult activities can disrupt social harmony and stability within communities.

(v)Cult Recruitment and Exploitation: Cults often employ deceptive tactics to recruit vulnerable individuals, particularly young people.

(vi)Erosion of Ethical Values: Cults often promote ideologies that contradict societal norms and ethical values.

(vii)Academic Disruption: Cultism frequently infiltrates educational institutions, leading to the disruption of academic activities.

(i)High levels of poverty, unemployment, and inequality create an environment where vulnerable individuals are more likely to be recruited into cults.

(ii)Inadequate resources, corruption, and a lack of proper training and coordination among law enforcement agencies can hamper their ability to effectively combat cult activities.

(iii)One significant hindrance to eradicating cultism in Nigeria is the lack of effective law enforcement.

(iv)Limited public awareness and understanding of the dangers and consequences of cultism can hinder eradication efforts.

(v)Cults employ sophisticated techniques of manipulation and indoctrination to control their members’ thoughts, beliefs, and actions

(i) Policy Development and Implementation: Public servants play a crucial role in developing policies and strategies to address societal issues and achieve national goals. They research, analyze, and make recommendations to policymakers, and then implement approved policies, monitoring their progress and making adjustments as needed.

(ii) Service Delivery: Public servants are responsible for delivering public services to citizens. This includes providing healthcare, education, transportation, infrastructure development, social welfare programs, and more. They work to ensure these services are accessible, efficient, and of high quality.

(iii) Regulation and Compliance: Public servants enforce regulations and ensure compliance with laws and standards. They oversee sectors such as finance, commerce, health, and the environment, developing and implementing regulations, conducting inspections, and taking enforcement actions when necessary.

(iv) Budgeting and Financial Management: Public servants are involved in the formulation and execution of government budgets. They prepare budget proposals, allocate funds to different sectors, monitor expenditures, and ensure financial accountability and transparency.

(v) Human Resource Management: Public servants are responsible for managing the government’s workforce. They recruit, hire, train, and evaluate employees, promote merit-based appointments, and develop policies for staff welfare, performance management, and career advancement.

(vi) Public Engagement and Communication: Public servants engage with the public, communicating government policies, programs, and initiatives. They facilitate citizen participation, gather feedback, address concerns, and promote transparency and accountability.

(vii) Diplomacy and International Relations: Public servants represent Nigeria in diplomatic and international affairs. They participate in negotiations, promote trade and economic cooperation, manage consular services, and work towards regional and global partnerships.

(viii) Research and Development: Public servants conduct research and analysis to inform policymaking and improve service delivery. They generate data, evaluate existing programs, identify emerging trends, and propose innovative solutions to address societal challenges.

(ix) Crisis and Disaster Management: Public servants play a vital role in managing crises and disasters. They develop contingency plans, coordinate emergency response efforts, provide relief and support to affected communities, and facilitate recovery and reconstruction.

(x) Monitoring and Evaluation: Public servants monitor and evaluate the performance and impact of government programs and policies. They assess their effectiveness, efficiency, and outcomes, and make recommendations for improvement.

The executive arm of government in Nigeria is one of the three branches of government, alongside the legislative and judicial branches. The executive arm of government in Nigeria plays a crucial role in governance, policy implementation, and the administration of the country. Its primary function is to execute laws, provide effective leadership, and ensure the well-being and progress of the nation and its citizens. It comprises of the Police, Arm Forces and different ministries and parastatals. The President of Nigeria is the head of state and the head of government.


The executive arm of government in Nigeria is one of the three branches of government. It is responsible for implementing and executing laws, policies, and programs that govern the country. The President of Nigeria is the head of the executive branch, and the office is held by the individual elected through a national election. It comprises of the Police, Arm Forces and different ministries and parastatals.

(i)Implementation of Laws: The executive branch is responsible for implementing and enforcing laws passed by the legislature.

(ii)Protection of Civil Liberties: The executive branch is responsible for safeguarding the civil liberties and rights of citizens.

(iii)Executive Leadership: The executive arm provides leadership and direction to the government.

(iv)Checks and Balances: The executive branch acts as a check and balance on other branches of government.

(v)International Relations: The executive arm represents the country in international affairs and diplomatic relations.

(vi)Crisis Management and National Security: The executive branch is responsible for managing crises and ensuring national security.

(vii)Accountability to the Legislature and the People: The executive branch is accountable to the legislature and ultimately to the people.

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WAEC Civic Education 2022 Answers

Civic Education 2 (Essay) – 09:30am – 11:30am
Civic Education 1 (Ob

jective) – 11:30am – 12:30pm





(Pick Any Five)
(I)Poor orientations and low salaries Public servants get poor or no orientations about their jobs and various offices held. This is coupled with their low salary earnings as pea-nut which is another reason for the shortcomings in the public service.

(ii)Lack of qualified personnel: Most personnel in various public service offices either neglect their right jobs or have little or no experience about it but carry out such services due to their search for greener pasture.

(iii)Waste of manpower and resources: This is another form of over-staffing which leads duplication of offices in the ministries. It appears as a waste of man power and resources when the public service pays excess money for little efforts since there would be no much job for them to carry out in their various offices.

(iv)Corruption: The effectiveness of the public service has been slowed down by bribery and corruption to the extent that public servants failed to perform their official duties as they look forward to bribery before carrying out their jobs.

(v)Colonial influence: Most public corporations incorporated in Nigeria during the colonial era and no longer inform since the departure of colonial masters who were the initiators of this public services and corporation. The independence saga and influence brought about some shortcomings into the public service, as some of these public corporations were seized and manipulated by private individuals into their own private businesses.

(vi)Political instability : constant and regular change of top rank office holders in public service brings about constant instability of rules and regulations. This constantly leads to the shortcomings in the public service sector in Nigeria

(vii)Political interference: Many governments in power do not allow the free flow of duties dye to the undue interferences which at most times is only favourable to politician. They regularly fixed upon various tasks they are ignorant of , but only their political wings attached them to such jobs.

(vii)Inconsistency of government policies/Bureaucracy: In Nigeria, a change of government many times means changes in policies.Bureaucracy refers to excessive use of formalities in the public service, which militate against its effectiveness.




(i) Life coping skills: These refer to strategies used to help you get through difficult situations that life throws at you
(ii) Intellectual skills: These refer to the ways of thinking and problem-solving used by professionals in a field
(iii) Decision making skills: This is the ability to select between two or more alternatives to reach the best outcome in the shortest time.
(iv) Leadership skills: These are the strengths and abilities individuals demonstrate that help the oversee processes, guide initiatives and steer their employees toward the achievement of goals
(v) Negotiation skills: These are qualities that allow two or more sides to reach a compromise. These are often soft skills such as persuasion, planning, strategizing and cooperating
(vi) Motivational/self-actualization skills: These refers to the actions you take to elicit a desired outcome, response or behavior.
(vii) Communicative skills: This is the ability to convey or share ideas and feelings effectively.
(viii) Artistic skills: This is a particular skill or a flair for something, especially an artistic pursuit.
(ix) Interpersonal/human relation skills: These are the behaviors and tactics a person uses to interact with others effectively

(i) To inculcate discipline in Nigerian youths by instilling in them a tradition of industry at work, and of patriotic and loyal service to Nigeria in any situation they may find themselves.

(ii) To raise the moral tone of the Nigerian youths by giving them the opportunity to learn about higher ideals of national achievement, social and cultural improvement

(iii) To develop in the Nigerian youths the attitudes of mind, acquired through shared experience and suitable training which will make them more amenable to mobilisation in the national interest

(iv) To enable Nigerian youths acquire the spirit of self reliance by encouraging them to develop skills for self employment

(vi) To contribute to the accelerated growth of the national economy by engaging them in different productive areas of national economy such as in farms, and in private enterprises.

(v) To develop common ties among the Nigerian youths and promote national unity and integration

(vi) To provide greater employment opportunities for the youths by ensuring greater job opportunities are available to the fresh graduates



(i)The first important quality of a responsible parent is choosing the right partner, to prevent future disputes.
(ii)Responsible parenthood requires parents to consider their financial ability and plan on the number of children to give birth to, and cater for.
(iii)A responsible parent should be able to provide the needs of the family
(iv)A responsible parent should be able to detect when his or her partner and children are emotionally unstable and adjust to prevent uprising in the family.
(v)A responsible parent should be able to adopt peaceful strategies like mimicking, laughter, etc

(i)It breeds God-fearing/morally upright children
(ii)It breeds children with good leadership and citizenship qualities.
(iii)It trains children to know their rights and how to secure them.
(iv)It trains children to be peace-loving
(v)It trains children to abhor criminal/acts which reduces crime in the society.



Human rights simply means the absolute natural rights and privileges enjoyed by the citizens of any given state which are usually outlined by the constitution of the state.


Human rights means certain privileges enjoyed by every citizen in a country irrespective of gender,tribe or creed. Human rights are natural ,civil,politics and legal


Human rights are the basic natural rights which are essential for human existence and every citizen is entitled to.

(i) Being detained by law for an offence committed
(ii) During wars, a person’s right can be violated
(iii) During a curfew
(iv) When a citizen has a contagious or an infectious disease.
(v) Declaration of a state of emergency
(vi) Acquisition of individual’s property by the state for public use

(i) To guarantee the liberty of citizens: It guarantees a total safeguard of human right, peace and unity in the society as the constitution is a body of laws and principles through which a state is ruled

(ii) To make sure the rights of citizens are not violated: Laws that are not written in the constitution are unknown to law, they cannot be exercised or sanctioned when violated.

(iii) To punish violators: The written form of human right gives room for a provision of a section for punishment of an offender or someone who infringed on someone’s right.





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