Neco Data Processing 2023 Answers

Data Processing (Objective & Essay)
10:00am – 1:00pm


Data model is a conceptual representation of data and its relationships typically used in database management systems. It defines how data is organized stored and accessed within a system.

(i) In spreadsheet packages a worksheet is a grid of cells where data can be entered manipulated and organized While A workbook is a file that contains multiple worksheets. It is the entire collection of worksheets charts and other data within a spreadsheet package.

(ii) A cell is a single unit within a worksheet grid that is identified by its row and column. Each cell can contain data such as numbers text or formulas While Active cell refers to the currently selected cell within a worksheet. It is highlighted and ready to receive data or perform operations.


(i) Bookmark: In the context of websites a bookmark refers to saving the URL of a web page for easy access and future reference. It allows users to quickly revisit web pages without having to search for them again. Bookmarks are usually stored within the browser or bookmark manager and can be categorized and organized.

(ii) Bitmap: Bitmap is a file format used to store images in a pixel-by-pixel manner. It represents an image as a grid of individual pixels where each pixel is assigned a specific color or shade. Bitmap images are commonly used for photographs and graphics and are associated with file extensions such as .bmp or .png. They can be edited pixel-by-pixel but their size can be larger compared to other image formats.

Primary key is a unique identifier for each record in a database table. It is used to uniquely identify each record and ensure that there are no duplicate records within the table.

(i) Internet service provider (ISP) is a company that provides internet access to individuals businesses and organizations. They typically offer various types of internet connections such as dial-up DSL cable and fiber optic and also may offer additional services like email accounts web hosting and virtual private networks (VPNs).

(ii) Network administrator is an IT professional responsible for managing and maintaining computer networks within an organization. They are responsible for tasks such as setting up and configuring network hardware managing network security monitoring network performance troubleshooting network issues and ensuring that network resources are available to users.

(i) Ctrl + A is a keyboard combination that selects all the content in a document or a specific area where cursor is placed.

(ii) Alt + Shift + tab is a keyboard combination that allows you to switch between opened windows or applications in reverse order.

(iii) Alt + F4 is a keyboard combination that closes the active window or quits the current program.

(iv) Shift + E is not a specific keyboard combination with a predefined function in MS-Word.

(i) Parallel database: A parallel database is a type of database management system that is designed to run on parallel computing platforms. It divides the data and computing tasks across multiple processors allowing for faster processing and enhanced scalability.

(ii) Distributed database: A distributed database is a database that is spread across multiple computers or servers connected through a network. Each computer in the network stores and manages a portion of the data providing improved performance reliability and fault tolerance.

(i) Microsoft PowerPoint
(ii)Google Slides

(i) Data storage and retrieval: A DBMS allows for efficient storage and retrieval of large amounts of structured data.
(ii) Data organization and management: A DBMS allows for the organization and management of data through the use of tables relationships and query languages.
(iii) Data security and access control: A DBMS provides mechanisms for securing the data and controlling access to it ensuring that only authorized users can view or modify the data.

(i) Keyboard
(ii) Mouse
(iii) Scanner
(iv) Microphone

An operating system is a software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides services for computer programs. It acts as an intermediary between the computer hardware and user applications.

(i)Microsoft Office Suite
(ii) Adobe Creative Cloud
(iii) Google G Suite
(iv) AutoCAD


-Advantages of distributed database-
(i) A distributed database can distribute the workload across multiple servers resulting in faster processing times and the ability to handle large amounts of data.
(ii) If one server fails the data can still be accessed from other servers ensuring high availability and data redundancy.

-Disadvantages of distributed database-
(i) Managing a distributed database can be complex due to the need for synchronization and consistency across multiple servers.
(ii) Setting up and maintaining a distributed database can be more expensive than a centralized database due to the need for additional hardware and network infrastructure.

(i) Worms: Worms are self-replicating malware that spread across networks without the need for human interaction. They can cause significant damage by consuming network bandwidth or exploiting vulnerabilities in computer systems.
(ii) Trojan Horses: Trojan horses are malware disguised as legitimate software or files. They are often used to gain unauthorized access to a computer system or to steal sensitive information. Unlike viruses Trojan horses do not self-replicate.

Computer ethics refers to the moral principles and guidelines that govern the use of computers and technology. It involves understanding and applying ethical principles to issues that arise in computer systems and technology.

(i) Misinformation and Fake News: The internet enables the rapid spread of misinformation, fake news, and propaganda, which can lead to misunderstandings, social unrest, and even public health risks.
(ii) Cybersecurity Threats: The internet is susceptible to various cyber threats, including hacking, viruses, malware, and phishing attacks, which can compromise personal information, sensitive data, and even critical infrastructure.

A primary key of the table and provides a unique identifier for each record. It is used to uniquely identify and access individual records in a table. On the other hand a secondary index is based on a non-primary key attribute of the table and helps in improving the efficiency of data retrieval operations other than the primary key. It allows for faster searches on frequently accessed attributes other than the primary key.


Normal form refers to a standard format or arrangement that data or information should adhere to. In relation to databases normal form refers to a set of rules that define how the attributes or columns of a database table should be structured to eliminate redundancy and ensure data integrity.

(i) Adobe
(ii) CorelDRAW
(iii) GIMP (GNU Image Manipulation Program)
(iv) Canva

(i) Communication: ICT facilitates communication through various means such as emails instant messaging video conferencing and social media platforms. People can easily stay connected share information and collaborate irrespective of geographical boundaries.
(ii) Information access and research: ICT provides access to vast amounts of information through the internet. It allows individuals to search gather and analyze data quickly and efficiently. It also enables research and learning opportunities with resources like online courses e-books and educational websites.

(i) Structure: A file is a single unit used to store information or data while a folder is a container used to organize and store multiple files.
(ii) Accessibility: Files can be accessed directly while folders are used to hold and organize multiple files making them accessible through the folder structure.

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