Political socialization is the process of acquisition and transmission of political knowledge and value by individuals from one generation to another.

A nation simply means a group or body of people who share the same opinion, interest, judgment, political aspirations and consciousness and united by common ties.

Hence, below are the features of a nation :
(i) geographical
(ii) homogeneous cultural
(iii) religious
(iv) Homogeneous attributes and traditions.


(i) Constitutional division of power: Powers are constitutionally shared between the central authority and other component units.
(ii) Written and Rigid constitution: Codification of constitution on a single document/book which is difficult to amend.
(iii) Powers derived from the constitution: The three tiers of government derived their powers from the constitution.
(iv) Supremacy of the constitution: Constitution/law is strictly adhered as a regulation which everybody is subject to.
(v) Separation of power: Adoption of the theory of separation of power which enables the arms of government to function independently in order not to have clash of powers.

A public corporation may be defined as a business organisation established, owned, managed and financed with tax payers money by government of a country with the main motive of making profit but to render essential services to members of the public.

(i) Financial Control: The accounts of public corporations are audited from time to time by government Auditors and a copy of the Auditors’ report is submitted to the Minister which he presents to the parliament and this prevents financial mismanagement.
(ii) Judicial Control: As a legal entity which can sue and be sued, a public corporation can be dragged to court if it fails to act within the limits set by the law that established it and its action declared ultra vires.
(iii) Ministerial Control: Ministers that are answerable to the parliament are given extensive power over public corporations. These include powers to appoint and dismiss members of Board of Directors, determination of remunerations, conditions of service, approving all loans and major expenditures etc.
(iv) Public Control: Members of the public who consume goods and services of the public corporations exercise some form of control through criticisms they level against these corporations.

(choose Any Five)
(i)Law:This is an important condition to the liberty of an individual.

(ii)Democracy: Under democracy political power is with the masses and so freedom is guaranteed.

(iii)power distribution:when powers are decentralized, more likely,men will be zealous for freedom.

(iv)vigilance: This is a sure safeguard vyo freedom.This means that citizens are alert and ready to fight any unreasonable interferences with their rights.

(v)independence of the judiciary: The essential of this to freedom of the individual cannot be underestimated. The judiciary and judges should be free from the interference of the executive and legislature.

(vi)Fundamental human rights: It is usually entrenched in a written constitution ,embodying the civil and political rights of the citizens and placing some limitations on the powers of those in government.

(Choose Any Five)
(i)Shortage of fund: The involvement of this organization in large scale operation affects its financial resources. This has created over time, shortage of funds.

(ii)Sovereignty of nation: The U.N.O cannot effectively enforce its decision because member states are not ready to surrender their sovereignty to the authority of the organization.

(iii)The veto power: Each of the five permanent members of the security council has veto power. This could be used at times to satisfy their selfish interest at the expense of fulfilling the objectives of the organization.

(iv)poverty: The inability of the united nation to effectively address the issue of poverty among member states.

(v)Revolution of conflicts: Inability of U.N.O to resolve conflicts among some member nation e.g Israel.

(vi)Difference in ideology: There difference in ideology, culture, politics, and methods used in pursuing economic goal. This may negate the evolution of lasting peace in the world.

(i)National party of Nigeria (NDN) Alhaji shehu shagari.
(ii)The unity party of Nigeria chief obafemi awolowo.
(iii)The great Nigeria people party (GNPP) Waziri Ibrahim

(i)Since independence, political party have showed that they are loyal to the electorate during campaign and would serve their Interest of vote to power.
(ii)They usually organize membership to reach all corners of the country
(iii)They have showed that their main objectives are to contests election,win and grow the country by all means

(i) Costly to run: The constitution operates a presidential system with duplication of political function thereby making it too expensive and costly.
(ii) Impeachment: The impeachment clause as stipulated in the constitution could be obeyed by the lawmakers.
(iii) Execution of programme: Separation of powers could result to delay in the implementation or carrying out of government programmes.
(iv) Activities in Government: This could be brought to stand-still because there was a problem between the executive and the legislature.
(v) Concentration of powers: The criticism that both executive president as both head of state and head of government has too much powers concentrated in him, creating the room for abuse of power.

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