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SECTION A: (1-3)
SECTION B: (4-6)
SECTION C: (7-9)
(PICK ANY THREE)
(PICK ANY FOUR)
(i) Unification: The Yoruba civil wars played a crucial role in unifying the Yoruba people. The conflicts brought various Yoruba subgroups and kingdoms together, creating a sense of shared identity and common purpose.
(ii) Rise of New Leaders: The Yoruba civil wars saw the emergence of new leaders who played pivotal roles in shaping the future of the region. Notable figures such as Samuel Ajayi Crowther, who later became the first African Anglican bishop, gained prominence during this period.
(iii) Colonial Influence: The wars occurred during the height of European colonial influence in Africa. The conflicts provided an opportunity for the British to assert their control over the Yoruba region and establish indirect rule, marking a significant step toward British colonial dominance in Nigeria.
(iv) Legacy of Political Structure: The Yoruba civil wars resulted in the creation of a centralized political structure among the Yoruba people. This structure, based on the Oyo Empire’s model, had a lasting impact on the subsequent political organization of the Yoruba people and influenced the development of modern Nigeria’s political structure.
(v) Cultural Preservation: The Yoruba civil wars led to increased efforts to preserve Yoruba culture and traditions. As the conflicts threatened the Yoruba way of life, there was a resurgence of cultural identity and a renewed commitment to preserving Yoruba customs, language, and religion.
(vi) Resistance against Slavery: The Yoruba civil wars were also characterized by a strong resistance against the Atlantic slave trade. The conflicts saw alliances formed between various Yoruba kingdoms to combat the slave trade, contributing to the eventual decline of the transatlantic slave trade in the region.
(vii) Transition to Modern Warfare: The Yoruba civil wars witnessed the introduction of new military technologies and tactics. The conflicts marked a transition from traditional warfare methods to more modern forms of combat, including the use of firearms, which had a profound impact on subsequent conflicts in Nigeria.
(viii) Historical Consciousness: The Yoruba civil wars have become an important part of Nigeria’s historical consciousness. The conflicts are often studied and commemorated as a critical period in Yoruba and Nigerian history, serving as a reminder of the region’s resilience, cultural heritage, and struggles for independence and self-determination.
(PICK ANY FIVE)
(i) Pan-Africanism: Nigeria’s motivation to join the Organization of African Unity (OAU) stemmed from its commitment to the ideals of Pan-Africanism, which aimed to promote unity, solidarity, and cooperation among African nations.
(ii) Decolonization and Independence: Nigeria, like many other African countries, gained its independence from colonial rule in the 1960s. Joining the OAU provided a platform for Nigeria to establish itself as a sovereign nation and participate in the collective efforts to address the challenges of post-colonial Africa.
(iii) African Solidarity: Nigeria recognized the importance of fostering solidarity among African nations to address common issues and challenges, such as socio-economic development, regional security, and political stability. Membership in the OAU allowed Nigeria to collaborate with other African countries in pursuing shared goals.
(iv) Anti-Apartheid Struggle: Nigeria was a staunch opponent of apartheid in South Africa and actively supported the liberation movements fighting against racial discrimination and oppression. By joining the OAU, Nigeria could contribute to the collective efforts of African nations in combating apartheid and supporting the freedom struggle.
(v) Regional Security: Nigeria recognized the need for collective security arrangements in Africa. As a member of the OAU, Nigeria could participate in discussions and initiatives aimed at promoting peace, stability, and conflict resolution in different regions of the continent.
(vi) Economic Cooperation: Nigeria sought to enhance economic cooperation with other African nations to foster trade, investment, and regional integration. Being a member of the OAU allowed Nigeria to engage in discussions on economic development, policy coordination, and regional trade agreements that would benefit the country and the continent as a whole.
(vii) African Identity and Culture: Nigeria, as a country with a rich cultural heritage, valued the preservation and promotion of African identity and culture. The OAU provided a platform for Nigeria to collaborate with other African countries in safeguarding and promoting African history, arts, and traditions.
(viii) Collective Diplomacy: By joining the OAU, Nigeria could participate in collective diplomatic efforts on behalf of Africa. This included representing African interests on the global stage, engaging in negotiations with other regional blocs, and advocating for African concerns in international forums.
(ix) Regional Integration: Nigeria recognized the importance of regional integration for economic development and political stability in Africa. Through its OAU membership, Nigeria could contribute to the development of regional institutions and initiatives aimed at fostering integration, such as the African Union (AU).
(x) African Development Agenda: Nigeria was committed to supporting the African development agenda, as articulated by the OAU and later the AU. By being a member of the OAU, Nigeria could actively engage in discussions and initiatives related to issues such as poverty alleviation, healthcare, education, infrastructure development, and the promotion of good governance in Africa.
(PICK ANY FIVE)
(i) Competition for Power: The struggle for power and dominance among the various Hausa states led to disunity. Each state sought to assert its authority and expand its territory, often resulting in conflicts and rivalries.
(ii) Ethnic and Religious Differences: The Hausa states were not culturally homogenous. There were variations in ethnic identities, languages, and religious affiliations, with some states being predominantly Muslim and others adhering to traditional African religions. These differences sometimes created tensions and divisions among the states.
(iii) Dynastic Rivalries: The Hausa states had different ruling dynasties, and the competition for power among these dynasties often led to internal conflicts and disunity. Succession disputes and power struggles within ruling families weakened their collective strength.
(iv) Economic Competition: Trade routes, particularly the trans-Saharan trade, were crucial for the prosperity of the Hausa states. Competition over control of trade routes, access to resources, and economic dominance led to conflicts and divisions among the states.
(v) External Invasions: The Hausa states faced invasions from external forces such as the Fulani jihads led by Islamic scholars and warriors. These invasions disrupted the existing power structures and brought about significant changes in the region, leading to disunity among the Hausa states.
(vi) Territorial Disputes: Disputes over territorial boundaries, control of strategic locations, and resources were common among the Hausa states. These disputes often led to armed conflicts and weakened their collective ability to defend against external threats.
(vii) Influence of Foreign Powers: The influence of external powers, particularly European colonial powers, played a role in exacerbating disunity among the Hausa states. European powers sought to exploit divisions and establish control over the region, leading to fragmentation and conflicts among the states.
(viii) Lack of Centralized Authority: Unlike some other African empires of the time, the Hausa states lacked a centralized authority that could effectively coordinate their actions and maintain unity. Each state had its own ruler and administrative structure, which made it challenging to forge a cohesive and unified front.
(PICK ANY FIVE)
(i) The Royal Court: The Royal Court was the central governing body in Dahomey. It consisted of the King (also known as the Oba), his advisors, and various officials. The court made important political decisions, enacted laws, and managed the administration of the kingdom.
(ii) Eghaevho N’Ahòn: Eghaevho N’Ahòn was the title given to the chiefs of the different districts in Dahomey. They acted as local administrators and represented the interests of their respective communities. They were responsible for collecting taxes, maintaining order, and executing the policies of the king.
(iii) Council of State: The Council of State was an advisory body that assisted the Oba in making important decisions. It consisted of high-ranking officials, including the Eghaevho N’Ahòn and other appointed individuals. The council provided guidance on matters of governance, military strategies, and diplomacy.
(iv) Amazons: The Amazons, also known as the Mino, were a renowned all-female military regiment in Dahomey. They were highly skilled warriors who played a significant role in the kingdom’s defense and expansion. The Amazons were also involved in ceremonial duties and acted as a symbol of the king’s power.
(v) Guilds and Trade Associations: Various guilds and trade associations existed in Dahomey, representing different professions and economic activities. These organizations included blacksmiths, weavers, farmers, hunters, and traders. They promoted the interests of their members, regulated trade practices, and facilitated economic growth.
(vi) Secret Societies: Secret societies were prevalent in Dahomey and played important social and political roles. These societies, such as Egungun and Ekpe, had initiation rituals, maintained specific codes of conduct, and served as guardians of cultural and spiritual traditions. They also had influence in decision-making processes within the kingdom.
(vii) Oyo Mesi: Oyo Mesi was a powerful council of elders and high-ranking officials in Dahomey. They were responsible for overseeing the king’s actions, ensuring that he ruled in accordance with established customs and traditions. Oyo Mesi had the authority to check the power of the king and act as a balance of power in the kingdom.
(viii) Court Officials: The royal court had various officials who held important administrative roles. These officials included the Iyase (the prime minister), the Eunuchs (trusted servants of the king), the Palace Guards (responsible for the security of the king and the palace), and the Oba’s wives and concubines, who had influence and participated in court affairs.
(ix) Ekine Society: The Ekine Society was a secret society that served as a social, religious, and political organization. Its members were men who had attained a certain level of success in society and were initiated into the society upon meeting certain criteria. The Ekine Society was known for its use of drums, dances, and other forms of cultural expression.
(x) Iwebo: Iwebo was a society of women who played important roles in the governance of the kingdom. They performed various functions, including the collection of taxes, the maintenance of roads and other infrastructure, and the provision of social services. Iwebo also had a role in resolving disputes and promoting peace within the kingdom.
(xi) Age Grade System: The Age Grade System was a socio-political organization that grouped individuals according to their age and provided a framework for social, economic, and political activities. Each age grade had specific roles and responsibilities, and individuals moved through the age grades as they matured. The age grade system served as a means of socializing young people into the norms and values of the kingdom and provided a platform for political participation.
(PICK ANY FIVE)
(i) Preservation of Local Customs and Traditions: Indirect Rule allowed the British administrators to govern through existing indigenous institutions and rulers. This approach aimed to maintain local customs, traditions, and social structures, providing a sense of continuity for the Nigerian people.
(ii) Minimal Disruption of Local Governance: By employing traditional rulers and chiefs as intermediaries, the British authorities minimized disruptions to local governance structures. This approach helped to maintain stability and avoid significant upheavals that might have occurred with a more direct form of colonial rule.
(iii) Efficient Administrative System: The Indirect Rule system utilized existing native administrative structures, such as traditional councils and courts, to enforce British policies and laws. This approach was seen as efficient since it utilized local resources and knowledge, reducing the burden on the colonial administration.
(iv) Economic Development: The British authorities often relied on local elites to collect taxes and administer economic policies. This approach allowed the indigenous rulers and chiefs to retain some control over economic affairs and provided opportunities for them to participate in the colonial economy.
(v) Access to Education and Western Knowledge: Indirect Rule brought Western education to some parts of Nigeria through the establishment of schools by the colonial authorities. This provided some Nigerians with access to formal education, which could lead to improved opportunities in the colonial administration or other sectors.
(vi) Infrastructure Development: Under Indirect Rule, the British colonial administration invested in infrastructure projects like road construction, telecommunication networks, and health facilities in certain areas. This led to improved access to services and increased connectivity within the region.
(vii) Exposure to Modern Systems of Governance: The presence of British administrators and their interaction with traditional rulers exposed the Nigerians to modern systems of governance, legal frameworks, and bureaucratic structures. This exposure opened up avenues for some Nigerians to gain knowledge and experience that would later influence their involvement in post-colonial governance.
(viii) Recognition of Indigenous Authorities: Indirect Rule conferred authority and recognition on indigenous rulers and chiefs, which helped to maintain their prestige and status within their communities. This recognition provided some level of stability and continuity in local leadership, which was seen as advantageous by those who benefited from this arrangement.
(PICK ANY FIVE)
(i) Advocacy against slavery: Christian missionaries actively spoke out against the institution of slavery, condemning its immorality and advocating for its abolition. They preached about the equality and dignity of all human beings, emphasizing the inherent worth of slaves.
(ii) Education and enlightenment: Missionaries established schools and educational institutions in Nigeria, providing slaves and freed individuals with opportunities for education. By imparting knowledge and critical thinking skills, they empowered individuals to question the legitimacy of slavery and understand their rights.
(iii) Conversion of slave owners: Through their religious teachings, missionaries sought to convert slave owners to Christianity, hoping to instill in them a sense of compassion, empathy, and respect for human life. This conversion often challenged the notion of slave ownership and promoted a more humane treatment of slaves.
(iv) Liberation of slaves: Missionaries actively participated in the liberation of slaves. They bought slaves from their owners, negotiated for their freedom, and provided shelter and support for freed individuals. In some cases, missionaries facilitated the establishment of self-sustaining communities for freed slaves.
(v) Promotion of indigenous leadership: Missionaries trained and educated indigenous leaders to take charge of their communities. By empowering local leaders, missionaries ensured the sustainability of their efforts against slavery and promoted self-governance among the people.
(vi) Documentation and reporting: Christian missionaries documented the horrors of the slave trade, including firsthand accounts of its brutality. They sent reports to their home countries, raising awareness and generating public support for the abolitionist movement.
(vii) Collaboration with abolitionist societies: Missionaries collaborated with abolitionist societies and organizations in Europe and the United States. They shared information, coordinated efforts, and leveraged international pressure to bring an end to the trans-Atlantic slave trade.
(viii) Cultural transformation: Through their teachings, missionaries fostered a cultural transformation that challenged the social acceptance of slavery. They emphasized the principles of equality, justice, and compassion, which gradually shifted societal attitudes and contributed to the eventual eradication of the slave trade.
(PICK ANY FIVE)
(i) Autonomous Regional Governance: Non-centralized states in Nigeria often have autonomous regional governance structures. These regions have a level of self-governance and decision-making power, allowing them to manage their affairs to some extent.
(ii) Greater Resource Control: Non-centralized states have greater control over the resources within their boundaries. This includes natural resources such as oil, minerals, and agricultural products. They can negotiate and manage the exploitation of these resources and retain a larger share of the revenue generated.
(iii) Revenue Allocation: Non-centralized states have the authority to allocate and manage their own revenue. They can collect taxes, fees, and levies, and have the power to determine how these funds are spent within their jurisdiction.
(iv) Local Legislation: Non-centralized states can enact and enforce laws specific to their region. They have legislative bodies, such as state assemblies, which can pass laws and regulations that are applicable within their boundaries, as long as they do not conflict with federal laws.
(v) Independent Judiciary: Non-centralized states have their own judicial systems, with independent courts that can adjudicate legal matters within their jurisdiction. They can interpret and apply both state and federal laws within the scope of their authority.
(vi) Education Policies: Non-centralized states have the power to shape and implement their own education policies. They can establish educational institutions, develop curriculum guidelines, and make decisions regarding educational standards and practices.
(vii) Health Service Provision: Non-centralized states are responsible for the provision of healthcare services within their jurisdictions. They can establish and manage healthcare facilities, implement health policies, and regulate the healthcare sector to meet the specific needs of their population.
(viii) Infrastructure Development: Non-centralized states have the authority to plan, fund, and implement infrastructure projects within their boundaries. This includes the construction and maintenance of roads, bridges, power plants, water supply systems, and other essential infrastructure.
(ix) Cultural Preservation: Non-centralized states have the ability to promote and preserve their unique cultural heritage. They can develop cultural policies, support cultural institutions, and safeguard traditional practices, languages, and customs specific to their region.
(x) Local Economic Development: Non-centralized states can pursue economic development strategies tailored to their region’s needs and potentials. They can attract investments, promote local industries, and implement policies that stimulate economic growth and job creation within their jurisdiction.
(PICK ANY THREE)
(i) Pottery shards
(ii) Stone tools
(iii) Ancient coins
(iv) Bone fragments
(v) Metal artifacts
(vi) Ceramic figurines
(vii) Clay tablets with inscriptions
(viii) Burial goods
(ix) Accumulations of discarded shellfish remains
(PICK ANY FOUR)
(i) Site Destruction: Archaeological sites can be easily damaged or destroyed by natural processes, construction projects, looting, or even unintentional human activities. Once a site is destroyed, valuable historical and cultural information is lost forever.
(ii) Limited Resources: Archaeological research often requires substantial funding and resources. Limited financial support can hinder excavations, laboratory analysis, preservation efforts, and publication of findings, leading to incomplete or delayed research.
(iii) Ethical Dilemmas: Archaeologists face ethical challenges concerning the excavation and handling of human remains, sacred artifacts, and culturally sensitive materials. Balancing the pursuit of knowledge with respect for indigenous rights and cultural heritage can be complex and controversial.
(iv) Fragmentary Evidence: Archaeologists primarily work with fragments of the past, such as broken pottery, decayed organic materials, or incomplete structures. Reconstructing ancient societies from these fragments requires skill, interpretation, and a deep understanding of the context.
(v) Interpretive Bias: Archaeological interpretation is influenced by the cultural backgrounds, assumptions, and preconceptions of the researchers. This can introduce bias into the analysis, potentially distorting the understanding of past societies and their behaviors.
(vi) Limited Accessibility: Many archaeological sites are located in remote or politically unstable regions, making them difficult to access. This limits the ability of researchers to study and document these sites fully, resulting in gaps in our understanding of human history.
(vii) Repatriation and Cultural Heritage: The ownership and repatriation of cultural artifacts can be a contentious issue. Disputes arise when artifacts have been removed from their countries of origin and are now held in museums or private collections in other countries. Finding a balance between preservation and the rights of communities to their cultural heritage is an ongoing challenge.
(viii) Public Engagement and Awareness: Archaeology often struggles to engage and communicate with the wider public effectively. Limited public awareness and understanding of archaeological methods and discoveries can hinder support for research funding, preservation efforts, and the protection of archaeological sites.
(PICK ANY FIVE)
(i) Socioeconomic Stability: Peaceful coexistence fosters stability, which is crucial for economic growth and development. When diverse groups peacefully coexist, it creates an environment conducive to investment, business expansion, and job creation.
(ii) Cultural Diversity: Nigeria is known for its rich cultural diversity, with over 250 ethnic groups. Peaceful coexistence allows for the preservation and celebration of this diversity, leading to cultural exchange, appreciation, and the growth of arts, music, literature, and cuisine.
(iii) National Unity: Peaceful coexistence strengthens national unity and social cohesion. It encourages Nigerians to embrace their shared identity as Nigerians, promoting a sense of belonging and patriotism.
(iv) Political Stability: Peaceful coexistence plays a crucial role in maintaining political stability. When various ethnic, religious, and social groups coexist peacefully, it reduces the likelihood of conflicts and tensions that can undermine political stability.
(v) Conflict Resolution: Peaceful coexistence has fostered the development of mechanisms for conflict resolution. It encourages dialogue, negotiation, and compromise, allowing disputes and disagreements to be resolved peacefully rather than escalating into violence.
(vi) Social Progress: Peaceful coexistence paves the way for social progress. It promotes inclusivity, equal rights, and equal opportunities for all citizens, regardless of their ethnic, religious, or social backgrounds. This creates a more just and equitable society.
(vii) Interfaith Dialogue: Nigeria is a religiously diverse country, with a significant population of both Christians and Muslims. Peaceful coexistence allows for interfaith dialogue, fostering understanding, respect, and cooperation among different religious communities.
(viii) International Reputation: Peaceful coexistence enhances Nigeria’s international reputation. It presents the country as a stable and attractive destination for foreign investment, tourism, and international collaborations. It also strengthens Nigeria’s role as a regional leader in promoting peace and stability in Africa.
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The attempt by the Portuguese missionaries at Christianizing the people of Benin and Warri failed due to their interest in trade and commerce than mission.
In Benin and Warri, J.F. Ade Ajayi expresses that the religion at the beginning of the 14th century was ineffective. He describes the nonchalant attitude of the Oba of Benin who asked that Portuguese missionaries be sent to Benin and when they arrived, he was busy fighting a war in 1515. He dismissed them and suggested that they could return when he had much time that he could spare on leisure. When they returned in 1538, the king was no more interested in the religion. Due to this, traditional religion went on and even spread in Benin, and subsequently, Benin’s relationship with the white men dwindled greatly. Another effort towards Christianizing Benin came in the middle of the seventeenth century by the Spanish and Italian Capuchins. They speculated that winning the heart of the Oba whom his subjects so much adored might mean winning the hearts of all the subjects, as they would definitely obey him in whatever circumstances. They were however disappointed to be denied access to the king as they saw him only twice-in ten months and they were caged in the rooms provided for them. When they became too much adventurous in 1651 by trying to interrupt a traditional festival involving the use of human being as sacrificial material, they were deported.
The Warri axis of the Niger-Delta did not also prove promising though in 1570, the Olu of Warri was excited about the Christian faith by allowing one of his sons named Domingos sent to Portugal to be educated. The only benefit from this association was that the Warri rulers from 1570-1733 became professing Christians. So Christianity was curtailed to the palace. People were afraid to take their children out for baptism, as they believed that a baptized child would die prematurely. The Christian ritual about marriage was not having any influence on the people and circumcision rites in the traditional way remained. To crown it all, there were no regular supply of clergy to administer the sacraments that held very significantly in the Catholic Church. What we could say about this formation in Warri is that at least Christian shadow could be seen in the region and the word “Christianity” was already known and mumbled at least among the rulers.
An unforgettable event occurred across the ancient Hausa land in 1804 when Usman dan Fodio launched a jihad war that overran almost all northern and some parts of Yoruba land. After about one hundred and ten years of that jihad, precisely in 1914, the colonial government unified both the ancient Hausa states and all the parts that were conquered by the jihad with other tribes that never knew about the jihad to produce the present day Nigerian state. About forty six years after that unification, Nigeria secured the so-called independence from her colonial masters. In spite of its deficiencies, the unilateral amalgamation was sustained by Nigerians with the aim of having a nation state like other progressive nations of the world, where all avenues should be exploited to make her an economically strong and virile nation. A place where like the Independence National Anthem acknowledged and reflected; “though tribe and tongue may differ, in brotherhood we stand”. Many of the citizens yearned for a united country where tribes and tongues may naturally differ, yet live in peace and harmony as one united and indivisible country. A country where people can stand for brotherhood and be proud to serve their sovereign motherland as symbolized in the Green-White- Green of the national flag, that signifies Peace, Justice and Prosperity. Incidentally, this was echoed by the preface of the Nigerian 1999 Constitution as amended in 2011, “we the people of the Federal Republic of Nigeria having firmly and solemnly resolved to live in unity and harmony as one indivisible and indissoluble sovereign nation under God
(i) Provision of high profile personnel for
the ECOWAS Secretariat agencies since its inception.
(ii) Nigeria Heads of State had served as
chairmen of ECOWAS.
(iii) Nigeria has played major roles in peace-keeping operations in Liberia, Sierra Leone and Cote d’lvoire.
(iv) Nigeria regularly attends all ECOWAS summits.
(v) Nigeria contributes to the development of ECOWAS by hosting summits and conferences.
(vi) Membership of ECOWAS Parliament
makes Nigeria to contribute to sub- regional issues.
(vii) Financial contributions: Nigeria pays her dues regularly to both the secretariat and the ECOWAS Fund
(viii) Actively participates in ECOWAS sponsored activities like trade fair, sports etc.
Most Nupe are farmers, and the staple crops are millet, guinea-corn, yams, rice, and groundnuts. Cassava, maize, and sweet potatoes (grown inland) are of secondary importance. The large proportion of seasonally flooded (fadama) land has allowed a greater emphasis on growing rice, sugarcane, and onions. This has encouraged the establishment of commercial growing and refining of sugar at Bacita. The Nupe practice hoe agriculture, using a large, heavy hoe called a zuku and a small hoe called dugba. The Nupe system of agriculture is based on shifting cultivation combined with rotation of crops. The low population densities and less intense form of agriculture allowed more of the original savanna to survive, and woodland products are significant, particularly from the shea-butter tree and the locust-bean tree. There are many fishermen in the villages on the banks of the Niger and Kaduna rivers and their tributaries. Cattle raising is engaged in by the Bororo Fulani, who move their herds from one pasture to another as necessity dictates.
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The socio-organization of the Igbos in the pre-colonial period is based on membership in kinship groups and parallel but complementary dual-sex associations, which are of great importance to the integration of society. The associations take several forms, including age-grades, men’s societies, women’s societies, and prestige-title societies such as the Nze or Ozo for men and the Omu, Ekwe, or Lolo for women. The interlocking nature of these groups prevents the concentration of authority in any one association. Age sets are informally established during childhood. Respect and recognition among the Igbo are accorded not only on the basis of age but also through the acquisition of traditional titles. In Igbo society, an individual may progress through at least five levels of titles. One could liken the acquisition of
titles to the acquisition of academic degrees. Titles are expensive to obtain, and each additional title costs more than the preceding one; they are, therefore, considered a sure means to upward mobility. In other words, The Igbos had a decentralized system of government. The executive, legislative and judicial power were vested in the Oha-na Eze, the council of elders, the Ofor title holders, the family, the Ozor title holders, the Age-Grade, the Umuada, the ‘Ala’ or the Earth’s goddess represented by a Chief Priest. Finally, the Igbo society is segmentary, Republican, and sovereign in nature. There were no chiefs compared to Yoruba and Hausa/Fulani pre-colonial administration.
Ife (aka Ile-Ife) was an ancient African city that flourished between the 11th and 15th century CE in what is today Nigeria in West Africa. Ife was the capital and principal religious center of the Yoruba kingdom of Ife, which prospered thanks to trade connections with other West African kingdoms. Ife is particularly famous today for the magnificent metal sculptures its artists produced which include serene-looking human heads so masterfully crafted that Europeans once wrongly considered them the work of another civilization.
Located in today’s Nigeria along the Guinea coast of southern West Africa, Ife controlled the rainforest to the west of the River Niger delta. Ife was founded c. 500 CE by the Yoruba people – a Kwa-speaking people of southwest Nigeria and Benin – but did not flourish until the early part of the 2nd millennium CE. Ife culture may have been influenced or somehow connected to the kingdom of Igbo-Ukwu, which peaked in the 9th century CE on the other side of the River Niger, but details of this period of history in southern West Africa are lacking. The kingdom of Ife had disappeared by the 16th century CE for reasons which are unknown.
(i)Demands for opportunity and inclusion: Many Nigeria at this time accepted the reality of colonial imposition but they did not accept the harsh discrimination and the lack of opportunity that was a central part of the colonial experience. Opposition to these aspects of colonialism was particularly strong among educated Africans. Educated Africans believed that “all humans are created equal.” Discriminatory colonial policies and practice restricted economic opportunities and participation in the political process.
(ii)Mass protests: During the inter-war era, there were few mass protests against colonial policies. One of the most important and interesting exceptions was the Aba Women’s War that took place in southeastern Nigeria in 1929. Ibo market women were upset with a number of colonial policies that threatened their economic and social position. In 1929, the women staged a series of protests. The largest protest included more than 10,000 women who had covered their faces with blue paint and carried fern-covered sticks. The women were able to destroy a number of colonial buildings before soldiers stopped the protest, killing more than fifty women in the process.
(iii)Economic opposition: During this time period economic opposition was often not well organized. However, there were attempts in the 1920s and 1930s by mineworkers in southern Nigeria and port workers in West and East Africa to organize into unions. While important, these activities had little impact on the majority of Nigerian peoples. Of greater impact were the less organized but more widespread efforts of Nigeria farmers to resist colonial demands and imposition on their labor and their land.
The Royal Niger company existed for a comparatively short time (1879–1900) but was instrumental in the formation of Colonial Nigeria, as it enabled the British Empire to establish control over the lower Niger against the German competition led by Bismarck during the 1890s. In 1900, the company-controlled territories became the Southern Nigeria Protectorate, which was in turn united with the Northern Nigeria Protectorate to form the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria in 1914 (which eventually gained
independence within the same borders as the Federal Republic of Nigeria in 1960).
In 1886 the company received a charter of incorporation as the Royal Niger Company and was authorized to administer the Niger delta and the country on the banks of the Niger and Benue rivers. It engaged in a three-way struggle with the French to the west and the Germans to the southeast for the trade of central Sudan. The company imposed prohibitive dues on the people of Brass, in the Niger delta, who wished to trade at their traditional markets in the company’s territory, and it incurred such hostility that in 1895 its establishment at Akassa was attacked. In the north, it did not manage to subdue the Fulani empire, but it did conquer several emirates and compelled them to recognize its suzerainty. The continuation of the company’s commercial and territorial disputes with France, together with continuing complaints from the people of Brass, led to the transference of the company’s charter to the imperial British government on Dec 31, 1899.
(i)Shortage of Staff: There was an acute shortage of trained European staff to help run the vast territories. Britain was therefore forced to, rely on the services of the local rulers. This shortage of staff was made worse because the Britain were involved with the Angio-Boer War. Again service in Africa was very unpopular because of the high mortality rate caused by the tropical climate and diseases among Europeans.
(ii)Shortage of Funds: Secondly, the funds or money available were too meager to finance large scale direct administration. Hence the shortage of funds forced the British to adopt the policy of Indirect Rule
(iii)Lack of Roads: The British could not easily reach most parts of its’ colonies because the colonies were vast with bad roads and lack of the means of communication. Hence local rulers were empowered to rule for them.
(iv)Fear of Hostilities and Revolts: It was also because of fear of revolts that the British avoid direct contact with African people as much as possible. Through indirect rule, Britain preserves direct traditional institutions.
(v)The Existence of a well Established traditional Administration: In many areas of Africa such as Northern Nigeria, the British found well established traditional institutions under the Muslim rulers. The institutions were easily adaptable to a system of indirect rule. Moreover, the Muslim rulers such as the Lamidos were powerful and had an influence on their people. Therefore, Britain came to believe that before any British administration could succeed in Africa, the Africans traditional rulers were essential.
(i)Nigeria played a role in helping The conservatives, led by Nigeria, offered alternative ideas to counterbalance the arguments of the radicals. Nigeria’s prime minister, Tafawa Balewa offered imposing ideas built on functionalism and gradualism in Nigeria.
(ii)they also played a role true the majority of African leaders at the summit favoured a continental organization built on the philosophy of gradualism. Despite the seeming victory of gradualism, Ghanaian Kwame Nkrumah still dissented by arguing for a politically united Africa with a common currency, common market, common system of defense, and an African central bank among others.
(iii)They also provide the platform for Nigeria to extend its diplomatic reach and shape the outcomes of major events across the continent. Through the multilateral framework of the OAU, Nigeria championed the campaign against colonialism and institutionalized racism in Africa.
(iv)Nigeria’s aversion for the fight against apartheid was supercharged by the country’s experience during its 30-month agonizing civil war. During this period, apartheid South Africa, racist Rhodesia/Zimbabwe, and pro-settler colonialism Portugal all supported the Biafran secessionists. Following this experience, successive Nigerian leaders became more outspoken in their opposition to institutionalized racism and colonialism in Africa during OAU summits and conferences.
(v)Nigeria also began to give open support and endorsement to liberation movements across the continent. The military regime of General Yakubu Gowon ‘unilaterally increased Nigeria’s contribution to the Liberation Fund of the OAU and buoyed the confidence level of the freedom fighters’. Nigeria’s leadership in this regard led to the dismantling of white minority rule in Southern Rhodesia/Zimbabwe in 1980 and the emergence of non-racial democratic rule in apartheid South Africa in 1994.
Answer four questions in all at least one question from each section
All questions carry equal marks.
SECTION A NIGERIA, UP TO 1800
1. Describe the ways in which slaves were obtained in Nigerian societies
2. Discuss the socio-organization of the Igbo in the pre-colonial period
3. What are the main characteristic of IFe as an early center of civilization in Nigeria
SECTION B NIGERIA IN THE 19TH CENTURY
4. Explain the methods adopted by Nigerian societies in their resistance to colonial imposition
5. Describe the impact the Royal Niger Company had on the history of Nigeria
6. Discuss the problems the Sokoto caliphate encountered after the jihad
SECTION C NIGERIA SINCE 20TH CENTURY SALVATION
7. Why did Britain use Indirect Rule system in their administration of Nigeria?
8. Discuss the external factors that aided the nationalist struggle towards the attainment of independence
9. Highlight the role played by Nigers in the African Union (AU).
Ife (aka Ile-Ife) was an ancient African city that flourished between the 11th and 15th century CE in what is today Nigeria in West Africa. Ife was the capital and principal religious center of the Yoruba kingdom of Ife, which prospered thanks to trade connections with other West African kingdoms. Ife is particularly famous today for the magnificent metal sculptures its artists produced which include serene-looking human heads so masterfully crafted that Europeans once wrongly considered them the work of another civilization. Located in today’s Nigeria along the Guinea coast of southern West Africa, Ife controlled the rainforest to the west of the River Niger delta. Ife was founded c. 500 CE by the Yoruba people – a Kwa-speaking people of southwest Nigeria and Benin – but did not flourish until the early part of the 2nd millennium CE. Ife culture may have been influenced or somehow connected to the kingdom of Igbo-Ukwu, which peaked in the 9th century CE on the other side of the River Niger, but details of this period of history in southern West Africa are lacking. The kingdom of Ife had disappeared by the 16th century CE for reasons which are unknown
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